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毛相麟: 古巴60年来创建文化强国的经验及启示

作者: 毛相麟  时间: 2021-03-25  来源:日博电竞-「官方网站」

[ZHAIYAO]1959NIANGUBAGEMINGQIAN,GUBADEWENHUADAIYOUZHIMINDIXINGZHI。GEMINGHOU,GUBAGONGCHANDANGZHILIYUCHUANGJIANSHEHUIZHUYIXINWENHUA。GUBADEJINGYANSHI: DANGHEGUOJIAZHIXINGLEZHENGQUEDEKUANYANXIANGJIDEZHISHIFENZIZHENGCE;BATIGAORENMINWENHUASHENGHUODEZHILIANGZUOWEIGEMINGDEMUBIAO,SHIRENMINCONGWENHUASHENGHUODESHIJIANZHEBIANWEICHUANGZAOZHE;ZAIGUBACHUANGJIANSHEHUIZHUYIWENHUA,BIXUJINXINGDOUZHENG;ZHONGSHIJICHENGGUBALISHISHANGGEMINGDEWENHUACHUANTONG,ZAIGUOMINZHONGPEIYUWENHUAZIXIN。GUBASHIYIGEXIAOGUO,JINGJIYEBUFADA,DANTAQUESHIWENHUAQIANGGUO,ZHEISHIYIGEQIJI,ERSHANGSHUJINGYANJIQISHIZESHICHUANGZAOQIJIDEZHONGYAOYUANYIN。

日博电竞[GUANJIANCI]GUBA SHEHUIZHUYIWENHUA WENHUAQIANGGUOGUBAJINGYAN

 

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日博电竞YI、DANGHEGUOJIAZHIXINGLEZHENGQUEDEKUANYANXIANGJIDEZHISHIFENZIZHENGCE

日博电竞DIYI,SHIZHONGJIANCHIDANGDUIZHISHIFENZIDEJIJIYINDAOHEMINGQUEYAOQIU。

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1976NIANDEGUBAXIANFAGUIDING,“SHEHUIZHUYIGUOJIAYINGGAI: SHIXIANLAODONGRENMINDEYIYUAN,BAOZHENGGUOJIADUIJIAOYU、KEXUEJISHUHEWENHUADEFAZHAN;ZUOWEIWEIRENMINRIBODIANJINGDERENMINZHENGQUAN,YINGGAIBAOZHANGSUOYOURENDOUYOUXUEXI、CANJIAWENHUAHETIYUHUODONGDEJIHUI”;“GUOJIAZHIDAO、CUJINHETUIDONGJIAOYU、WENHUAHEKEXUEDEQUANMIANFAZHAN。GUOJIADEJIAOYU、WENHUAZHENGCEZUNXUNXIALIEYUANZE: GUOJIADEJIAOYU、WENHUAZHENGCEDEJICHUSHIMAKESILIENINGZHUYIQUELIHEFAZHANDEKEXUESHIJIEGUAN。YOUYISHUCHUANGZUODEZIYOU,YOUYISHUBIAOXIANXINGSHIDEZIYOU,DANQINEIRONGBUYINGWEIHAIGEMING。WEITIGAORENMINDEWENHUASHUIPING,GUOJIANULIFANRONGHEFAZHANYISHUJIAOYU、CHUANGZUOCAINENG、YISHUYANJIUHEXINSHANGNENGLI”。ZHEIXIEJUYOUYUESHULIDETIAOWENCHENGWEIQUANTIGUOMINCONGSHIWENHUAHUODONGSUOBIXUZUNXUNDEXINGDONGZHINAN。

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KASITELUOSHIZHEIYANGPINGJIAXINLAOZHISHIFENZIDE,TASHUO,“YOUYUKAIZHANLESHEHUIZHUYIGEMING”,XINYIDAIZHISHIFENZI“PEIYANGLECHULAI,JIARULENEIXIEDANGNIANZHONGYUZUGUODEZHISHIFENZIXINGLIE。JINTIAN,RIBODIANJINGGUOZHISHIFENZIDESHULIANGDADAZENGJIA,TAMENNENGLIGENGQIANG,JUEWUGENGGAO,GEMINGXINGGENGQIANG”。

CHENGRAN,GUBADEZHISHIFENZIZHENGCEYECENGZOUGUOYIDUANWANLU。NEISHIZAI20SHIJI60NIANDAIHOUQI,GUBALINGDAORENDESIXIANGGUOYUJIJIN。DAO70NIANDAIQIANQI,WENHUAZHENGCECHUXIANLEGUOZUODEPIANCHA。ZHEIDUANSHIQIKECHENGWEI“HUISEDEWUNIAN”。70NIANDAIHOUQI,CUOWUDEZHENGCEZHUBUDEDAOJIUZHENG,ZAI1978NIANHE1979NIANDELIANGNIANZHONG,SHIFANGLEXUDUOBEICUOWUGUANYADEREN。

ZAIZHEILI,XUYAOCHENGQINGYIGEWENTI,JIYIXIEXIFANGCHUANMEIDUOCITIDAOGUBAGUANFANGCHENGRENSUOGUANYADEZHENGZHIFANSHI2WANREN,HUOZHEGENGDUO。RANER,SHISHIZHENXIANGSHI: DIYI,SUOWEI“GUANFANGCHENGREN”SHIKASITELUOZHIJIANGGUOYICI,SHIJIANSHIZAI20SHIJI60NIANDAI。DIER,“ZHENGZHIFAN”JUEDABUFENSHIDANGSHICANYUSHANQUBAOLUANDEWEIFANONGMIN,ERBUSHIZHISHIFENZI。DISAN,2WANRENZHONGHAIBAOKUOGEMINGQIANDEZHONGANFANREN。YIXIEXIFANGCHUANMEIBUGUJIANGHUADESHIJIANHEYOUGUANQINGKUANG,DUANZHANGQUYI,BUDUANZHONGFU“2WANREN”,SHENZHISIYIKUADARENSHU,ZHIZAIWUMIEGUBA。YIWEIYANSUDEMEIGUOXUEZHEZHICHU,ZAIGUBAZUIKUNNANDETESHUSHIQIZHONG“SUOGUANYADEZHENGZHIFANRENSHUYOUSUOZENGJIA,JIEJINYIQIANREN”。

DISAN,DANGHEGUOJIADUIBUTONGZHENGJIANZHEDEZHENGCESHIKUANDADE。

ZAIZHEILI,YOUBIYAOXIANJIESHAOYIXIAJUYOUGUOJIYINGXIANGDELIANGGEANLI,JI: PADILIYAANHEDAIBU75RENANDECHULIQINGKUANG。

AIWEIERTUO·PADILIYA(1932~2000)SHENGYUGUBABINEIERDELIAOSHENGDENONGCUN,ZAI16SUISHIYIFABIAOSHIZUO,HOUYIJUGUOWAI,ZHANGQISHENGHUOZAIXIFANGGUOJIA。GUBAGEMINGSHENGLIHOUHUIGUO,BIAOSHIYONGHUXINZHENGQUAN。1960~1962NIAN,ZHENGFURANGTAYIBAOSHEJIZHESHENFENDAOOUZHOUHESULIANCONGSHIWENHUARIBODIANJINGHUODONG。TACONG1963NIANQIZHUJIANDUIGEMINGBUMAN,BAOKUOFABIAOBUHAODESHIZUO。TAZUIDEYIDEYISHOUFANDUIGEMINGDESHISHI:

日博电竞YOUSHISHIBIYAOHEBUKEBIMIANDE/YIGERENWEILEYIGEMINZUERXISHENG/RANERCONGLAIYEBUYINGGAI/ZHENGGEMINZUWEILEYIGERENERXISHENG

1968NIAN,GUBAZUOJIAHEYISHUJIALIANMENGDEPINGJIANGTUANJIANGPADILIYADESHIJI《BUCANJIAYOUXI》PINGWEIHUOJIANGZUOPIN。PINGJIANGTUANCHENGYUANBAOKUOYIXIEXIBANYAHELAMEIGUOJIADEZUOJIA。ZHEIYISHIJIZHONGYOUZHEIYANGYISHOUDUANSHI:

日博电竞SHIREN!BATAYIJIAOTICHUQU!/TAZAIZHEIERSHENMEHUODOUBUGAN/TABUCANJIAYOUXI/TACONGBUJIDONG/CONGBUQINGCHUDIBIAOBAIZIJIDELICHANG/TADEYANJINGKANBUDAOQIJI/SHIJIANDOUHUAZAITIAOCUOSHANG

HUOJIANGMINGDANGONGBUHOU,GUONEIYULUNYOUBUTONGYIJIAN。《GANLANLV》ZAZHISHOUXIANFABIAOPIPINGWENZHANG,RENWEIZHEIBUSHIJIBUJINBUYINGDEJIANG,ERQIEYINGGAISHOUDAOPIPAN。SUIHOU,WENYIJIERENSHIFENFENFABIAOPIPANWENZHANG,RENWEILIANXIDAOZUOZHEGUOQUDEYIXIESHIZUO,HAIYOUYINGSHEGONGJIGEMINGDENEIRONG。1969NIAN,YIGEMINGWEIKAISILEDELIANBANGDEGUOJIAOSHOULAIGUBAFANGWEN,GUBAANQUANBUMENYIJIANDIEZUIJIANGTADAIBU。PADILIYAYUCIANYOUGUAN,YINCIYEYU1971NIAN3YUE20RIBEIBU。PADILIYABEIBUDEXIAOXICHUANCHUHOU,30MINGOUZHOUHELAMEIZUOYIWENHUARENSHIYU4YUE9RITONGGUOFAGUO《RENDAOBAO》LIANMINGFABIAOZHIKASITELUODEGONGKAIXIN,SHENGCHENGDUIGUBA“YONGZHENYADESHOUDUANDUIFUXINGSHIPIPINGQUANLIDEZHISHIFENZIHEZUOJIABIAOSHIGUANQIE”。SUIHOU,KASITELUOGONGKAIDIDUIZHEIXIEZUOYIRENSHITICHUJIANRUIDEPIPING。TONGNIAN4YUE25RI,PADILIYABEISHIFANG。27RI,TAZAIZUOJIAYISHUJIALIANMENGZHAOKAIDEDAHUISHANGZUOLEZIRIBODIANJINGPIPING。SHURIHOU,KASITELUOZAICIGONGKAIMENGLIEPENGJIZHEIXIEZUOYIRENSHI。5YUE22RI,FAGUO《RENDAOBAO》FABIAOLE60MINGWENHUARENSHIDIERFENGLIANMINGZHIKASITELUODEGONGKAIXIN,SHENGCHENGYIBIGONGFANGSHISHIPADILIYARENZUI,SHIRENXIANGQI“SIDALINZHUYIZUIANGZANGDENIANDAI”,BAOKUOQI“ZHENYAZHIDU”DENG。PADILIYACHUYUHOU,ZHENGFUGENJUTADIAOHUANGONGZUODEYAOQIU,ANPAITADAOHAWANEIDAXUEJIAOSHOUYINGGUOWENXUE。1979NIAN,MEIGUOCANYIYUANAIDEHUA·KENNIDIDENGRENCHUMIANYAOQIUKASITELUORANGPADILIYAYIJUGUOWAI。1980NIAN3YUE16RI,PADILIYABEIYUNXUCHUGUO。HOULAI,TAZAIMEIGUOYALABAMAZHOUAOBENDAXUERENJIAO。2000NIAN9YUE25RITAYINXINZANGBINGQUSHI,ZHONGNIAN68SUI。GUANYUCIAN,YOUBIYAOSHUOMINGDESHI: DIYI,PADILIYADEBEIBUSHIYINWEITAYUYIGEDEGUORENDEJIANDIEANYOUGUAN,ERBUSHIYINWEITAFABIAOLEFANDUIGEMINGDESHIZUO。DIER,ZHENGFUANPAITADAOHAWANEIDAXUEDANGJIAOSHOU,JIFAHUILETADETEZHANGYOUZHAOGULETADEZUNYAN。DISAN,DANGGUOWAIYOURENJIESHOUTASHIBIANTONGYITAYIJUGUOWAI。DISI,DANGDIYIFENGWAIGUOZUOPAIDEGONGKAIXINFABIAOHOU,KASITELUODEFANYINGSUIYOUXIEGUODU,DANYEKEYILIJIE。YINWEIGONGKAIXINDESHUMINGZHEZHONGYOUXIERENCENGZAIGUBAGEMINGSHENGLIHOUYINGGUFANGYAOQINGLAIGUBAJINXINGZHIDAO,TAMENHUIGUOHOUFABIAODELUNZHUYANZHONGWAIQULEGUBADEXIANSHI,KASITELUODUICIYISHIFENBUMAN。ERZHEIYICITAMENZUOWEIYOUREN,WANQUANKEYIXIANZHIJIEXIANGGUFANGLEJIEQINGKUANGHOUZAIZUOPANDUAN。KESHI,TAMENZAIBUMINGZHENXIANGDEQINGKUANGXIAJIMANGDICHUANLIANYIXIEREN,GONGKAIFABIAOYANGUOQISHIDEQIANZE,LITUSHIJIAGUOJIYALI,ZHEIXIANRANSHIJIBUYOUHAODEXINGWEI,BUNENGBUSHIRENFENNU。

XIAMIANJIESHAOYIXIAGUBADAIBU75MINGBUTONGZHENGJIANZHE(YOUCHENGYIJIANZHE)DEQIANYINHOUGUO。2001NIAN1YUE,MEIGUOZONGTONGQIAOZHI·BUSHENSHANGTAIHOUBIANXUANBUYAOYIXIANFAZHIRENHETURANXIJIDEFANGSHILAIDUIFUSUNHAIMEIGUOLIYIDEGUOJIA。CIQIAN,MEIGUOZHENGFUBAGUBASHUOCHENGSHISHIJIESHANGZHICHIKONGBUZHUYIDEQIGEGUOJIAZHIYI,SHENZHIMEIGUODEGUANYUANHAIWUMIEGUBAZAIYANZHISHENGWUWUQI。2002NIAN11YUE,MEIGUOZHENGFUPAICHUYIGEMINGWEIZHANMUSI·KASENDERENDANRENZHUGUBADEMEIGUOLIYIZHAOGUANCHUDEZHUREN。CIRENSHIGEWANGUDEFANGUPAI,SHANGRENHOULIYONGWAIJIAOYOUDAIDAIJINLESHUQIANGESHOUTINGFANGUDIANTAIDESHOUYINJIYIJIXIAOCEZI、CHUANDAN、XINGDONGZHISHIDENG。2003NIANERSANYUEJIAN,TADUOCIZHAOJIYIJIANZHEDETOUMUMENKAIHUI,TAOLUNDIANFUGUBADEJIHUA。TAMENDEJIMOUSHIGUDONGQUNZHONGXINGDEYIMINFENGCHAO,RANHOUMEIGUOYIZHIZHIXIANGMEIGUOYIMINWEIJIEKOURUQINGUBA。MEIGUOQITUXIANGGUBAKAIZHANDEWEIXIANYIPOZAIMEIJIE。GUBAZHENGFUWEILEGUOJIADEANQUAN,GUODUANXIALINGDAIBUZHEI75REN。YOUYUZHENGFUCAIQULEZHEIYICUOSHI,GUBACAIZHONGYUBIMIANLEYICHANGHOUGUONANLIAODEZHANZHENG。GUANYUCIAN,XUYAOSHUOMINGDESHI,DAIBUZHEIXIERENBUSHIYINWEITAMENCHIYOUBUTONGDEZHENGJIAN,ERSHIYINWEITAMENDEXINGWEICHUFANLEGUBAXINGFAZHONGDEWEIHAIGUOJIAANQUANZUI。

CONGYISHANGQINGKUANGKAN,ZHENGFUDUIPADILIYAANDECHULISHIQIADANGDE,DUIDAIBU75RENANDECHULIZESHIYIFAXINGSHIDE。20SHIJI90NIANDAIDETESHUSHIQIKAISHIHOU,ZHENGFUYUNXUYIJIANZHEYIJUGUOWAI,TAMENLIKAIHOURENGBAOLIUTAMENZAIGUONEIDECAICHAN;TAMENKEYIBUSHOUGANYUDIXIANGGUONEIDEQINYOUHUIKUANHEHUIGUOTANQIN。YINCI,TAMENBUSHIZHENGZHIGAINIANSHANGDE“LIUWANGZHE”。

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DIYI,1962NIANZAIQUANGUOKAIZHANDAGUIMODESAOMANGYUNDONG。ZHEIYINIANSHIGUBAGEMINGHOUDEDISANNIAN,ZAIBAIFEIDAIXINGDEQINGKUANGXIA,GEMINGZHENGFUDONGYUANQUANGUODELILIANGKAIZHANSAOMANGYUNDONG,ZAIYINIANZHINEIBAGUBADEWENMANGLVCONGGEMINGQIANDE23.6%XIAJIANGDAO3.9%,SHIGUBAYIYUEERCHENGWEILAMEIGUOJIAZHONGGUOMINSHIZILVZUIGAODEGUOJIA,CONGERWEIZAIQUANMINZHONGRIBODIANJINGSHEHUIZHUYIWENHUADIANDINGLEJICHU。

DIER,ZAI20SHIJI60NIANDAIQIANQIHEZHONGQIXIANHOUJIANLIQIGEZHONGWENHUAJIGOU,YIBIANJIAQIANGZHONGYANGDETONGYILINGDAOHECUJINWENHUASHIYEDEFAZHAN。JUBUWANQUANTONGJI,ZHEIYISHIQIJIANLIDEWENHUAJIGOUYOUJIN20GE,SHEJIWENHUALINGYUDEFANGFANGMIANMIAN。ZAIZHEIXIEJIGOUZHONG,DUOSHUSHIZHENGFUBUMENHEGUOYOUQIYE,YEYOUSHEHUITUANTI。

DISAN,SHIXINGTIGAOYUPUJIBINGZHONGDEZHENGCE,DALIFAZHANQUNZHONGXINGWENHUAZUZHI。20SHIJI60NIANDAICHUZAIQUANGUOPUBIANJIANLIQILAIDEYEYUYISHUAIHAOZHEXIAOZUHERENSHUBUDUANKUODA,DAO1975NIANYIYOU20WANREN,1985NIANFAZHANDAO157.8WANREN。ZHEIBIAOMINGGUBAMINZHONGYISHIFENGUANGFANDICANYULEWENHUASHENGHUO。

DISI,WEILEBUDUANTIGAOGUOMINDEWENHUASHUIPINGHEMANZUGUOMINRIYIZENGZHANGDEWENHUAXUQIU,DANGHEGUOJIADALIFAZHANWENHUASHIYE。DAO1985NIAN,QUANGUOYOU319JIAGONGGONGTUSHUGUAN、222GEZHUANYETUSHUGUANHE70GEDAXUETUSHUGUAN,YOUSHUDIAN311JIA。1981~1985NIANQIJIANPINGJUNMEINIANCHUBAN4000WANCETUSHU。DAO1989NIAN,QUANGUOYOUBAOZHI29ZHONG,QIZHONGRIBAO18ZHONG,ZONGFAXINGLIANG4.50YIFEN。QUANGUOYOUGUANGBODIANTAI55GE,QIZHONGQUANGUOTAI5GE、GUOJITAI1GE,RIZONGBOFANGLIANG335346XIAOSHI(1988NIAN)。QUANGUOYOUDIANSHITAI5GE,RIZONGBOFANGLIANG11091XIAOSHI。QUANGUOYOUBOWUGUAN211JIA,WENHUAZHIJIA262GE,SHIGEZHIJIA27GE,HUALANG136GE。

日博电竞SAN、ZAIGUBARIBODIANJINGSHEHUIZHUYIWENHUA,BIXUJINXINGDOUZHENG

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日博电竞SI、ZHONGSHIJICHENGGUBALISHISHANGGEMINGDEWENHUACHUANTONG,ZAIGUOMINZHONGPEIYUWENHUAZIXIN

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ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,ZHEIXIEJINGYANDEQUDEGUIGENDAODIHAIZAIYUGUBADANGHEGUOJIADUIRIBODIANJINGSHEHUIZHUYIWENHUADEGAODUZHONGSHI。ZAISHIJIESHANG,GUBAWULUNCONGGUOTUMIANJIHAISHICONGRENKOUSHULIANGSHANGKAN,DOUZHINENGSUANSHIYIGEXIAOGUO,JINGJIYEBUFADA。RANER,GUBAQUESHIYIGEBEISHIRENSUOGONGRENDEJIAOYUQIANGGUO、YILIAOQIANGGUO、TIYUQIANGGUOHEWENHUAQIANGGUO。ZHEISHIYIGEQIJI,ERGUBADESHANGSHUJINGYANZESHICHUANGZAOQIJINAIZHIGAIGUONENGSHENGCUNHEFAZHANDEZHONGYAOYUANYIN。 

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