日博电竞

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杨建民: 劳尔·卡斯特罗主政以来古巴共产党的新变化

作者: 杨建民  时间: 2021-03-25  来源:日博电竞-「官方网站」

CONG2006NIAN7YUEJIETIBINGZHONGDEFEIDEER·KASITELUODANRENGUBAGUOWUWEIYUANHUIZHUXIJIANBUZHANGHUIYIZHUXI,DAO2011NIAN4YUEDANGXUANGUBAGONGCHANDANGZHONGYANGWEIYUANHUIDIYISHUJI,ZAIDAO2018NIAN4YUEXIERENGUBAGUOWUWEIYUANHUIZHUXIJIANBUZHANGHUIYIZHUXIZHIWU,LIURENGUGONGZHONGYANGDIYISHUJI,LAOER·KASITELUOYIJINGZAIGUBAZHUZHENG12NIAN。ZHEIQIJIAN,GUBAGONGCHANDANGSHUNYINGSHEHUIFAZHANYAOQIU,SHIXIANDANGHEGUOJIAGONGZUOZHONGDIANZHUANYI,NULITANSUOXINDESHEHUIZHUYIFAZHANMOSHI,JIJICHUTAIGAIGECUOSHI,KAIZHANQUANFANGWEIWAIJIAO,SHIDANG、GUOJIAHESHEHUIFASHENGLEHENDUOXINDEBIANHUA。

日博电竞YI、SHIXIANDANGHEGUOJIAGONGZUOZHONGDIANZHUANYI,TANSUOXINDESHEHUIZHUYIFAZHANMOSHI

1.SHIXIANDANGHEGUOJIAGONGZUOZHONGXINZHUANYI,QIANGDIAODANGHEGUOJIADANGQIANZHUYAORENWUSHIFAZHANJINGJI

ZHANGQIYILAI,GUBAGONGCHANDANGYIZHIBAGEMINGDANGZUODANGHEGUOJIADESHOUYAORENWU,BINGQIANGDIAOYOUXIANFAZHANSHEHUIFULIHEGONGGONGRIBODIANJINGBUMEN,JINGJIBUSHIZHONGDIANGONGZUO,HAICHANGCHANGSHOUDAOZHONGZHONGKEGUANHEZHUGUANYINSUDEYINGXIANGHEGANRAO。SUDONGJUBIANHOU,GUBASHIQULESULIANHEDONGOUSHEHUIZHUYIGUOJIADEYUANZHU、SHICHANGYIJIZHENGZHIYITUO,JINGJIXIANRUYANZHONGKUNNAN,JINRUJIN20NIANDE“HEPINGSHIQIDETESHUJIEDUAN”。LAOERZHUZHENGHOU,NULIBADANGHEZHENGFUDEGONGZUOZHONGDIANZHUANYIDAOJINGJISHANGLAI,QIANGDIAOGUBADANGQIANMIANLINDEZHUYAORENWUSHIFAZHANJINGJI,ZHIYOUGAOHAOJINGJI,CAINENGJIANCHIHEFAZHANSHEHUIZHUYI。TAZAI2008NIAN“QIERLIU”JIANGHUAZHONGZHICHU:“ZUIZAORIBODIANJINGSHUOYUNDOUYUDAPAOTONGYANGZHONGYAO,XINGSHIEHUAHOU(ZHI20SHIJI90NIANDAICHUKAISHIDEJINGJIKUNNANSHIQI——YINZHEZHU)RIBODIANJINGSHUOYUNDOUBIDAPAOGENGZHONGYAO。XIANZAIGUOJIAMIANLINDEWENTIYESHI RUCI。”1YOUCIJIEKAILEGUBA“MOSHIGENGXIN”DEXUMU。

2.JIANCHISHEHUIZHUYIZHIDU,JINXING“JIEGOUBIANGE”HE“GUANNIANBIANGE”

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3.JIANCHISHEHUIGONGPING,FANDUIPINGJUNZHUYI

GUBAZHANGQISHIXINGJIHUAJINGJI,XIANGYINGDIZAISIXIANGSHANGBIJIAOQIANGDIAOPINGJUNZHUYI,DAOZHILEYANZHONGDE“DAGUOFAN”XIANXIANG。LAOERZHUZHENGHOU,DUIPINGJUNZHUYITICHUYANLIPIPING,RENWEIPINGJUNZHUYIYANZHONGQUJIELESHEHUIGONGZHENGHEPINGDENGZHEIYIZHONGYAODESHEHUIZHUYIYUANZE。TAZHICHU:“SHEHUIZHUYIYIWEIZHESHEHUIGONGZHENGHEPINGDENG,DANZHEISHIQUANLIDEPINGDENG,JIHUIDEPINGDENG,ERFEISHOURUDEPINGDENG。PINGDENGBUSHIPINGJUNZHUYI。GUIGENJIEDI,PINGJUNZHUYIYESHIYIZHONGBOXUEXINGSHI,QINLAODELAODONGZHESHOUDAOBUQINLAODELAODONGZHESHENZHIHAOCHILANZUOZHEDEBOXUE。”3JINGUANRUCI,2011NIAN4YUECHUTAIDE《GANGYAO》YIRANQIANGDIAO,GUBAZAISHEHUIBAOZHANGFANGMIANBUHUIFANGQIRENHEYIGEREN。

4.JIANCHIJIHUAJINGJI,CHENGRENSHICHANGZUOYONG,FANGKUANJINGJIZHENGCE,CUJINJINGJIFAZHAN

ZAIXIANGDANGZHANGDEYIDUANSHIQILI,GUGONGRENWEISHICHANGJINGJI、SHANGPINJIAZHIGUILVSHIZIBENZHUYIZHIDUDEGENBENSHUXING。FEIDEER·KASITELUORENWEI,SHICHANGGUILVZAOCHENGLERENLEIZUIZISI、ZUIWUQINGDEZHIDU,JIZIBENZHUYIZHIDU。ERSHEHUIZHUYIDEBENZHITEZHENGSHIJIHUAJINGJIHEGONGYOUZHI。SHICHANGJINGJIYUJIHUAJINGJIZHIXIANGHUQUBIE,ZHENGRUZIBENZHUYIYUSHEHUIZHUYIZHIXIANGHUDUILI。YINCI,ZHIDAOLAOERGAIGEZHIQIAN,GUBALIYONGSHICHANGFANGSHIJINXINGGAIGEZAILILUNSHANGRENGRANTINGLIUZAIDUIZIBENZHUYIDE“RANGBU”FANGMIAN,FANDUILIYONGGEZHONGJINGJIGANGGANDIAOJIESHEHUIJINGJI。

LAOERZHUZHENGHOU,TICHUBIANGE“SIXIANGHEGUANNIAN”。2011NIAN4YUECHUTAIDE《GANGYAO》QIANGDIAO,GUBAZAIGENGXINSHEHUIZHUYIJINGJIMOSHIDEJINCHENGZHONGJIANGJIXUYIFAZHANSHENGCHANZILIAOSHEHUIZHUYIGONGYOUZHIWEIZHU,TONGSHIYEFAZHANGETIJINGJI;ZAIFENPEIZHIDUFANGMIAN,SHIXING“ANNENGLIHELAODONG”JINXINGFENPEIDEYUANZE;ZAISHICHANGYUJIHUADEGUANXIFANGMIAN,YAOYIFAZHANJIHUAJINGJIWEIZHU,TONGSHIZHUYISHICHANGYINSUDEZUOYONG,KAOLVSHICHANGDEQUXIANG,JIANLIGEZHONGSHICHANG。2013NIAN7YUE,LAOERZAIBAJIERENDAYICIHUIYISHANGDEJIANGHUAZHONG,JIANGGUBABIANGEDEZONGTIFANGXIANGGAIKUOWEI“WEIHUHETUIDONGSHEHUIZHUYIZAIGUBADEFAZHAN,TUIDONGRIBODIANJINGFANRONGHEKECHIXUDESHEHUIZHUYI;QUEBAOJIBENSHENGCHANZILIAODESHEHUISUOYOUZHI,CHENGRENQITAFEIGUOYOUJINGYINGXINGSHIFAHUIDEZUOYONG;ZAIBUFOURENSHICHANGCUNZAIDETONGSHIZHONGSHENJIHUASHIGUANLIJINGJIBUKEHUOQUEDESHOUDUAN”。4 2016NIAN4YUEGUGONGQIDAHOUCHUTAILE《GUBASHEHUIZHUYIFAZHANDEJINGJISHEHUIMOSHIDELINIAN》(YIXIAJIANCHENG《LINIAN》)DENGZHONGYAOWENJIAN,RENWEIGUOJIACHENGRENSHICHANGDEKEGUANXUYAO,YINJINGONGXUGUIZE(SHICHANG)YUJIHUAYUANZEBINGBUCHONGTU,LIANGZHEKEYIGONGCUN、HUWEIBUCHONG,ZAOFUGUOJIA。GAIWENJIANHAITEBIEZHICHUZHONGGUODEGAIGEKAIFANGHEYUENANDEGEXINJINCHENGJIUYIJINGCHENGGONGDIZHENGMINGLEZHEIYIDIAN。5ZAIBIANGE“SIXIANGHEGUANNIAN”DETONGSHI,GUBAHAICAIQULEFAZHANGETIJINGJI、JIANGXIANZHITUDIFENJINONGMINDENGFANGKUANJINGJIZHENGCEDEJUCUO。

日博电竞XIANZAI,GUBAYUNXUSHICHANGZAIGUOJIAJIHUADEKUANGJIANEIFAHUIZIYUANPEIZHIZUOYONG,ZAIJIANCHIJIBENSHENGCHANZILIAOSHEHUISUOYOUZHIDEJICHUSHANGSHIXIANSUOYOUZHIHEJINGYINGFANGSHIDEDUOYUANHUA;GENGJIAYOUXIAODITONGGUOHONGGUANJINGJISHOUDUANHEJIHUADUIJINGJIJINXINGDIAOJIE;ZAIFENPEIFANGSHISHANGKAISHISHIYONGWUZHIJILIHEJINGSHENJILIXIANGJIEHEDEFANGSHI。YINGDANGSHUO,GUBADUISHEHUIZHUYIBENZHIDERENSHIYOUSUOTUPO,DANSHIDUISIYINGJINGJIFAZHANYIRANCHIJINSHENTAIDU。RU2016NIAN4YUECHUTAIDE《LINIAN》JINZHISUOYOUQUANHECAIFUJIZHONGZAIFEIGUOYOUZHIXINGSHIDEZIRANRENHEFARENSHOUZHONG,TICHULIYONGSHUISHOUSHOUDUANBAOHUDISHOURUZHE,DUIFEIGONGJINGJIDELIRUNJINXINGDIAOKONG。2017NIAN7YUE,LAOERZAIQUANGUORENDATONGGUOXINDE《JINGJISHEHUIZHENGCEGANGYAO》SHIZHICHU,GUBABUYUNXUCHANQUANHECAIFUJIZHONGDAOSIRENBUMEN。JIANYUTONGYIGEGUBARENYIJINGYOURENYONGYOUSANSIJIASHENZHIWUJIACANGUANDEXIANSHI,GAIWENJIANMINGQUEBUYUNXUGUBARENYONGYOUDUOZHONGSHENGYI。6ZONGTISHANGJIANG,GUBADUISHICHANGDERENSHIHAIZAIBUDUANFAZHAN,ERQIEZHEIGEGUOCHENGHAIYUANWEIJIESHU。

ER、JIANCHIDANGZAIGUOJIAZHONGDELINGDAODIWEI,JIAQIANGDANGDEZUZHIHEZHIDURIBODIANJING

1.JIANCHIDANGZAIGUOJIAZHONGDELINGDAODIWEI,JIANJUEHANWEIYIDANGZHI

WEILEKEGUANPINGGUDANGDEGONGZUO,BINGYIGEXINDEJINGSHENSHISHIBIYAODEBIANGE,SHIDANGDEGONGZUONENGGOUYUSHIJUJIN,JIAQIANGDUI“GENGXIN”JINCHENGDELINGDAO,GUGONGZAIDANGDELISHISHANGDIYICIZAILIUDAZHAOKAIHOUBUDAOYINIANDESHIJIANLIZHAOKAILEDIYICIQUANGUODAIBIAOHUIYI,TONGGUOLE《GUBAGONGCHANDANGDEGONGZUOMUBIAO》HE《DIYICIQUANGUODAIBIAOHUIYIGUANYUDANGDEGONGZUOMUBIAODEJUEYI》LIANGGEZHONGYAOWENJIAN。《GUBAGONGCHANDANGDEGONGZUOMUBIAO》ZHICHU,GUGONGSHIGUBASHEHUIHEGUOJIADEZUIGAOLINGDAOLILIANG,SHIGEMINGDEHEFACHENGGUO,SHIYOUZUZHIDEXIANFENGDUI。GUGONGSHIMAKESIZHUYI、LIENINGZHUYIDEDANG,SHIMADISIXIANGDEDANG,SHIGUBAWEIYIDEZHENGDANG,QIZHUYAOSHIMINGSHITUANJIESUOYOUDEAIGUOZHERIBODIANJINGSHEHUIZHUYI,BAOWEIGEMINGDECHENGGUO,BINGWEIZAIGUBAHEQUANRENLEISHIXIANGONGZHENGDELIXIANGERJIXUDOUZHENG。7LAOERZAIDIYICIQUANGUODAIBIAOHUIYIBIMUSHISHANGZHICHU,GUBABIXUJIANCHIGONGCHANDANGDELINGDAO,BIXUJIANCHIYIDANGZHI。TAQIANGDIAO:“GUBAGONGCHANDANGSHIGUBASHEHUIHEGUOJIADEZUIGAOLINGDAOLILIANG,SHIGEMINGDEHEFACHENGGUO,SHIYOUZUZHIDEXIANFENGDUI,DANGYURENMINYIQI,QUEBAOGEMINGDELISHIJINCHENG。RIBODIANJINGJIANGYONGYUANBUHUIFANGQIZHEIYITIAO。”TAZHICHU:“FANGQIYIDANGZHIYIWEIZHESHIDIGUOZHUYIZAIGUBADEYIGEHUODUOGEZHENGDANGDEHEFAHUA,CONGERXISHENGGUBARENMINTUANJIEDEZHANLVEWUQI。”TAHAIZHICHU:“RIBODIANJINGBINGBUHUSHIRENHEQITAGUOJIASHIXINGDEDUODANGZHI,RIBODIANJINGYANGEZUNZHONGLIANHEGUOXIANZHANGGUIDINGDEZIJUEQUANHEBUGANSHETAGUONEIZHENGDEYUANZE。DANSHI,GENJUGUBAWEIDULIHEMINZUZHUQUANZHANGQIDOUZHENGDEJINGYAN,MIANLINGUHUORENXINHEZHENGZHISHANGPINHUA,RIBODIANJINGHANWEIYIDANGZHI。”8

日博电竞LISHIBIAOMING,ZAIGUBAGEMINGDEGEGEZHONGYAOFUZASHIKE,GUGONGYIZHICHUYUDOUZHENGDEZUIQIANYAN。ERRUJINZAIGUBAGENGXINSHEHUIJINGJIMOSHIDEGAIGEGUOCHENGZHONG,GUGONGYIRANZOUZAISHIDAIDEQIANLIE。

2.JIAQIANGHEGAIJINDANGDERIBODIANJING,SHIXIANZUZHISHENGHUOZHENGCHANGHUA

日博电竞YISHIDINGQIZHAOKAIDANGDEDAIBIAODAHUI。GUGONGCENGYU1975NIAN、1980NIAN、1986NIAN、1991NIANHE1997NIANJUXINGGUODANGDEDAIBIAODAHUI,DANZAI1997NIANZHI2010NIANDE14NIANLI,MEIYOUZHAOKAIYICIQUANGUODAIBIAODAHUI,DANGNEIZUZHISHENGHUOHENBUZHENGCHANG,ZHONGYANGLINGDAOCENGLAOLINGHUAWENTIYUELAIYUEYANZHONG。GUGONGLIUDAJUEDING,JINHOUMEINIANYINGZHISHAOZHAOKAILIANGCIZHONGYANGWEIYUANHUIQUANHUI,TAOLUNGENGXINJINGJIMOSHIHEJINGJIJIHUADESHISHIQINGKUANG。2012NIAN1YUE,GUGONGZHAOKAILEDIYICIQUANGUODAIBIAOHUIYI,ZHUANMENTAOLUNDANGDEGONGZUO。2016NIAN4YUE,GUGONGYOURUQIZHAOKAILEQIDA。DANGNEIZUZHISHENGHUODEZHENGCHANGHUABUJINYOULIYUDANGDERIBODIANJING,HAIYOULIYUDANGGENGHAODIFAHUIDUIGUOJIA“MOSHIGENGXIN”JINCHENGDELINGDAOZUOYONG。ERSHIGAIGEGAOJILINGDAOGANBURENZHIZHIDU。2011NIAN4YUE,LAOERZAIDANGXUANDANGDEDIYISHUJIDEGUGONGLIUDAJIANGHUAZHONG,TICHUDUIBAOKUOGUOWUWEIYUANHUIZHUXIHEGEBUBUZHANGZAINEIDEGAOJILINGDAORENRENZHIZHIDUJINXINGGAIGE,ZHICHUJINHOUWUNIANSHIZIJIDEZUIHOUYIGERENQI。92012NIAN1YUEGUGONGDIYICIQUANGUODAIBIAOHUIYIJIUCIZUOCHULEMINGQUEGUIDING。2016NIAN,LAOERZAIGUGONGQIDASHANGTICHUXINDANGXUANDEZHONGYANGWEIYUANBUCHAOGUO60SUI,XINDANGXUANDEZHENGZHIJUWEIYUANBUDECHAOGUO70SUI。10ANZHAOZHEIYIYUANZE,GUGONGQIDAXUANJUCHANSHENGLEDIQIJIEZHONGYANGWEIYUANHUI。2018NIAN4YUEGUBADIJIUJIEQUANGUORENMINZHENGQUANDAIBIAODAHUIXUANJUDIYASI-KANEIERDANRENGUOWUWEIYUANHUIZHUXIHEBUZHANGHUIYIZHUXIZHIWU,LAOERBUZAIDANRENSHANGSHUZHIWU。GUBAZUIGAOLINGDAOCENGHUANJIEMAIKAILEZHONGYAOBUFA。

日博电竞3.JIAQIANGGANBUDUIWURIBODIANJING,GAIJINGONGZUOFANGFAHEZUOFENG

YOUYUZHANGQIZHIZHENG,GUGONGDANGYUANGANBUZAIGONGZUOZUOFENGSHANGCHUXIANLEYIXIEWENTI,BIRUGUANLIAOZHUYIHEJIAOTIAOZHUYIDENG。ZHENDUIZHEIXIEWENTI,LAOERTICHULEYANLIDEPIPING。TAZAI2011NIAN8YUE1RIQUANGUORENMINZHENGQUANDAIBIAODAHUILIHUIKAIMUSHISHANGQIANGDIAOBIXU“GAIGEGONGZUOFANGFAHEZUOFENG”,ZHICHUGUOQUDEFANGFAHEZUOFENGYIJINGBUFUHEXIANSHIXUYAO,ZAIHENDUOQINGKUANGXIAZUAILEDUICUOWUDEJIUZHENG。TAXIANGQUANTIGUOMINXUANBU,JINXINGSHEHUIHEZHENGZHIGAIGEDESHIHOUDAOLE,HUYUGEJILINGDAOKEFUGUANLIAOZHUYIEXI。WEILECONGZHIDUSHANGKEFUGUANLIAOZHUYI,GUGONGJUEDINGRUOHUAGUOJIAZAINONGYE、LINGSHOUYE、YUNSHUYE、JIANZHUYEDENGXINGYEZHONGDEZUOYONG,ZENGJIASIYINGQIYEZHU、HEZUOSHEHEZULINYEZHUDUIJINGJIDECANYUCHENGDU。LAOERHAIDAITOUBIAOSHICHENGRENBINGJIUZHENGCUOWU,XIQUJINGYANJIAOXUN。TASHUO:“RIBODIANJINGSHIFENQINGCHURIBODIANJINGSUOFANDECUOWU,RIBODIANJINGXIANZAITAOLUNDE《GANGYAO》BIAOZHIZHEJIUZHENGCUOWUDEDAOLUHEBIXUGENGXINRIBODIANJINGSHEHUIZHUYIJINGJIMOSHIDEKAISHI”。“YAOMERIBODIANJINGJIUZHENGCUOWU,BURANRIBODIANJINGZAIXUANYABIANPAIHUAIDESHIJIANYIGAOJIESHU,RIBODIANJINGJIUHUICHENMEIXIAQU,BINGQIEHUIZANGSONGJIDAIRENDENULI。”11TAHAIHUYUGUBARENYAODUIYIXIELINGDAORENSHENSHANGCUNZAIDE“XIAAIDE、PAICHI(GAIGE)DEGUANNIAN”JIAYICHEDIFENXIHEJIUZHENG。TAZHICHUGUBAGEMINGDE“ZUIDADIREN”BUSHIMEI“DIGUOZHUYI”,ERSHIGUBAREN“ZIJIDECUOWU”,RUGUODUIZHEIXIECUOWUJINXINGSHENRUFENXI,JIUHUIJIANGZHIZHUANHUAWEIJINGYAN。

WEILEJIAQIANGGANBUDUIWURIBODIANJING,2011NIAN10YUE,GUBACHENGLIGUOJIAHEZHENGFUGANBUGAODENGXUEYUAN,QIZONGZHISHIPEIYANGGAOZHILIANGDE、YOUZHENCAISHIXUEDE、JUYOUKEXUETAIDUDEGANBU,YILUOSHIDANGDE《GANGYAO》。MUQIANGAIXUEYUANYOUGONGGONGGUANLIBANHEQIYEGUANLIBAN,XUEYUANZAIGAIXIAOTUOCHANXUEXI8ZHOU,BIYEHOUSHOUYUZHENGSHU。SHOUKEDEJIAOYUANLAIZIHAWANEIDAXUE、GAODENGLIGONGXUEYUANHEGEZHENGFUBUMENDENG。XUEYUANHAIJIANGLUXUKAISHEQITABAN,BINGJIANGZAIHAWANEIGEQUHEQUANGUOGEDISHELIFENXIAO。2012NIANGUGONGDIYICIQUANGUODAIBIAOHUIYITONGGUODE《GUBAGONGCHANDANGDEGONGZUOMUBIAO》DUIGONGZUOFANGFAHEZUOFENG、ZHENGZHISIXIANGGONGZUO、GANBUZHENGCEHEDANGTUANGUANXIDENGFANGMIANJINYIBUTICHULEMUBIAOHEYAOQIU。

4.JINSHENXUANZEJIEBANREN,JIJITUIJINZUIGAOLINGDAOCENGDENIANQINGHUA,SHENHUAGUOJIAJIEGOUGAIGE

日博电竞ZI2006NIANFEIDEER·KASITELUOYINBINGJIANGGUOJIAZUIGAOLINGDAOZHIWUJIAOJILAOERYIHOU,CANJIAGUOGEMINGDEDANGHEJUNDUILINGDAORENXIANGJITUIXIUHEQUSHI,GUBADANGHEGUOJIADEZUIGAOLINGDAOCENGJIURENSHIDAOXUANZEJIEBANRENDEZHONGYAOXINGLE。DANGUBAGONGCHANDANGDUIGAIWENTIGAODUJINSHEN,2009NIANLAHEHELUOKEDENGYIPICENGBEIPUBIANKANHAODENIANQINGLINGDAORENBEIMIANZHI,ZAI2011NIAN“MOSHIGENGXIN”ZHENGSHIKAIQIHOU,BEIWAIJIECHENGWEI“SHEJISHI”DEZHUGUANLUOSHI《GANGYAO》CHANGSHEWEIYUANHUIDEMULIAOYEZAI2018NIANXINYIJIEQUANGUOZHENGQUANDAIBIAODAHUIGAIXUANGUOJIALINGDAORENDEGUOCHENGZHONGXIAOSHENGNIJI。ERZAIGUGONGQIDAZHONGBINGWEIRURENSUOLIAODANGXUANGUGONGZHONGYANGDIYIFUSHUJIDEDIYASI·KANEIERDANGXUANGUOWUWEIYUANHUIZHUXIHEBUZHANGHUIYIZHUXI。KANEIERDANGXUANHAIBUDAOBANNIAN,GUBAXIUXIANCHENGXUZHENGSHIQIDONG。GENJUXINXIANFA,GUBAJIANGZENGSHEGUOJIAZHUXIHEZONGLI,GUOWUWEIYUANHUIZHUXIJIANGJINXIANGDANGYUQUANGUORENMINZHENGQUANDAIBIAODAHUIZHUXI。122019NIAN10YUEJIANGXUANCHUXINDEGUOJIAZHUXIHEZONGLI。GUBAZHENGZHIJIEGOUDEBIANHUARENGRANZAIJINXINGZHIZHONG。

日博电竞SAN、KAIZHANQUANFANGWEIWAIJIAO,DUIWAIGUANXICHUXIANXINBIANHUA

LAOERZHUZHENGSHIDUONIAN,GUBADEDUIWAIGUANXIFANGMIANFASHENGLEZHONGDABIANHUA。QUANFANGWEIDUOYUANWAIJIAO、JIAQIANGWAIJIAODEJINGJIGONGNENGSHIDANGQIANGUBAWAIJIAODEXINTEDIAN,WAIJIAOYAOWEIGUONEIGAIGETIGONGLIANGHAODEWAIBUHUANJING,HUODEYUANZHU、MAOYIYUTOUZI,YOULIYUGUONEITONGGUOMOSHIGENGXINJINYIBUGAISHANTOUZIHUANJING,ZAITIGAOJINGJINEISHENGDONGLIDETONGSHIYEXIYINWAIZI,SHIXIANJINGJIFAZHAN。13ZAIHUIFUYUYUANSUDONGGUOJIAGUANXIDEJICHUSHANG,GUBADEWAIJIAOZHONGDIANSHIYUXIFANGGUOJIAGUANXIDEZHENGCHANGHUAHEBAOCHIYUZHONGGUOHELAMEIZUOYIGUOJIADEJINMIGUANXI。ZHEIYESHIGUBASHIYINGGUONEI“MOSHIGENGXIN”HEGUOJIXINGSHIBIANHUADEJIEGUO。

1.SHIXIANMEIGUGUANXIZHENGCHANGHUA

2014NIAN12YUE17RI,MEIGULIANGGUOLINGDAORENXUANBUQIDONGBANGJIAOZHENGCHANGHUAJINCHENG,SHIYIZHICHUYUDIDUIZHUANGTAIDELIANGGUOGUANXICHUXIANLELISHIXINGZHUANZHE,SHIXIANLEGUMEIGUANXIZHENGCHANGHUADIYIJIEDUANDESANDAMUBIAO,JIJIANGGUBACONG“ZHIKONGMINGDAN”ZHONGSHANCHU、HUIFUWAIJIAOGUANXIHESHIXIANGAOCENGHUFANG。14LIANGGUOSHOUNAOZAI2015NIAN4YUEDEMEIZHOUFENGHUISHANGSHIXIANLESHOUCIHUIWU,BINGYUTONGNIAN7YUE20RIZHENGSHIHUIFUWAIJIAOGUANXI。2016NIAN3YUE,AOBAMAFANGWENGUBA,CHENGWEI88NIANLAISHOUCIFANGWENGUBADEMEIGUOZONGTONG。SHUANGFANGJIURENQUAN、PEICHANG、YIMINDENGWENTIZHANKAIDUIHUA,DACHENGLEYOUGUANHUANBAO、HUIFUZHIYOUDENGFANGMIANDEXIEYI。MEIGUOFANGMIANHAIFANGKUANLEDUIMAOYIHEQIAOHUIDEXIANZHI。2017NIAN1YUE,AOBAMAZAIXIERENQIANFABIAOSHENGMING,XUANBUMEIGUOJIKEZHONGZHI“GANJIAOSHIJIAO”ZHENGCE。15ZI2014NIANDIMEIGUQIDONGLIANGGUOGUANXIZHENGCHANGHUAJINCHENGYILAI,ZHEIYIZHENGCEYIZHISHIMEIGUGUANXIZHENGCHANGHUAMIANLINDEZHANGAIZHIYI。DANZHEIYIQIEZAITELANGPUZONGTONGSHANGTAIHOUFASHENGLENIZHUAN,TELANGPUXUANBUCHEXIAOAOBAMASHIQI“WANQUANBUGONGPING”DEXIEYI,KAISHIZHONGXINJIAQIANGDUIGUBADEFENGSUO,TONGSHIJIEKOU“SHENGBOGONGJI”JIANSHAOZHUGUWAIJIAORENYUAN,BANBUDUIGUBAZHICAIDEQIYEMINGDAN。162018NIANDIZAICIZHUIJIAZHICAIMINGDAN,MEIGUGUANXIZAICIHUIDAOBINGDIAN。

2.GAISHANDUIOUGUANXI

2014NIAN2YUE,OUMENGWAIZHANGHUIYIJIUYUGUBAQIDONGZHENGZHITANPANDACHENGYIZHI,BINGDEDAOGUBADEJIJIXIANGYING,BIAOZHIZHEOUGUGUANXIZHENGCHANGHUAJINCHENGDEZHENGSHIQIDONG。2015NIANSHUANGFANGDEGAOCENGHUDONGJUSHIZHUMU,XIANSHIFUZEOUMENGWAIJIAOZHENGCEDEFUZERENMOGAILINIFANGGU,JIEZHESHISHIRENFAGUOZONGTONGAOLANGDEFANGWENGUBA,CHENGWEIMEIGUGAISHANGUANXIYILAISHOUWEIFANGWENGUBADEXIFANGDAGUOYUANSHOU。2016NIAN3YUE11RI,GUBAHEOUMENGQIANSHUZHIZAITUIDONGSHUANGBIANGUANXIZHENGCHANGHUADEKUANGJIAXIEYI。11YUE,OUGUQIANSHU“ZHENGZHIDUIHUAYUHEZUOXIEYI”,WEIGUBADEMOSHIGENGXINTIGONGZHULI。172017NIAN11YUE,GAIXIEYIZHENGSHISHENGXIAO,KAIQILEGUBAYUOUMENGGUANXIDEXINJIEDUAN。

3.RENGRANSHILAMEIZUOYIGUOJIA、ZHONGGUOHEELUOSIDEGUANXIWEIGUBAWAIJIAODEZHONGYAOYIKAOLILIANG

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SI、ZHICHILAMEIZUOYIYUNDONG,GONGGUGUBAZAISHIJIESHEHUIZHUYIYUNDONGZHONGDEDIWEI

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ZONGSHANGKEJIAN,GUBASHEHUIZHUYIDUIXIBANQIUNAIZHISHIJIESHEHUIZHUYIYUNDONGDEFAZHANZHIGUANZHONGYAO,QIMOSHIGENGXINDECHENGBAIYIFEICHANGGUANJIAN。ZUOWEISHIJIESHANGWEIYIYIGEZAIXIFANGWENHUABEIJINGXIARIBODIANJINGSHEHUIZHUYIDEGUOJIA,GUBABUJINYONGYOUDETIANDUHOUDEZIRANHUANJING,HAIYOUSHOUJIAOYUCHENGDUPUBIANBIJIAOGAODEGAOSUZHIRENKOU,DANGRANYEMIANLINZHERENKOULAOLINGHUARIYIYANZHONG、TOUZIBUZUDENGFAZHANPINGJING,QIFAZHANMOSHIWANQUANYOUKENENGHEDONGFANGSHEHUIZHUYIMOSHIYOUSUOBUTONG。YINCI,GUBATONGGUO“MOSHIGENGXIN”TANSUOFUHEZISHENGUOQINGDESHEHUIZHUYIFAZHANMOSHIBUJINKEYIJIEJUEZHANGQIYILAIKUNRAOGUBADEJINGJIFAZHANWENTI,HAIBIJIANGFENGFUSHIJIESHEHUIZHUYIYUNDONGDEFAZHANJINGYAN。

 

注释

1Raúl Castro,Discurso pronunciado en el acto central en conmemoración del 56 aniversario del asalto a los cuarteles Moncada y Carlos Manuel de Céspedes,26 de julio de 2008.

2徐世澄:《劳尔·卡斯特罗有关古巴经济变革的论述和古巴经济变革的最新动向》,《当代世界》2011年第3期。

3Raúl Castro,Discurso pronunciado en las conclusiones de la primera sesión ordinaria de la VII Legislatura de la Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular.Palacio de las Convenciones,La Habana,11 de julio de 2008.http://www.cuba.cu/gobierno/rauldiscursos/2008/esp/r110708e.html.

4Intervencion del General de Ejercito Raul Castro Ruz,Primer Secreario del Comite Central del Parido Commiunista de Cuba y Presidente de los Consejos de Estado y de Ministros,en la Primera Sesion Ordinaria de la VIII Legislatura de la Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular,en el Palacio de Convenciones,el 7 de Julio de 2013.

5Partido Comunista Del Cuba,Conceptualizcion del Modelo Economico y Social Cubano de Desarollo Socialista,http://www.pcc.cu/pdf/congresos_asambleas/vii_congreso/conceptualizacion.pdf.

6The Economist Inteligence Unit,Government cracks down on private sector,August 3rd 2017,http://www.eiu.com/index.asp?layout=displayIssueArticle&issue_id=525755436&article_id=2005754984.

7Partido Comunista de Cuba,Objetivos del Trabajo del Partido Comunista de Cuba aprobados por la Primera Conferencia Nacional,enero 2012.http://www.pcc.cu/sites/default/files/documento/pdf/20190613/objetivos_de_la_conferencia.pdf.

8Raúl Castro,Discurso pronunciado en la clausura de la Primera Conferencia Nacional del Partido,en el Palacio de Convenciones,el 29 de enero de 2012.

9Raúl Castro,Informe Central al VI Congreso del Partido Comunista de Cuba,en el Palacio de las Convenciones,16 de abril del 2011.

10Raúl Castro,Informe Central al VII Congreso del Partido Comunista de Cuba,en el Palacio de las Convenciones,16 de abril del 2016.

11Raúl Castro,Discurso pronunciado en la clausura del Sexto Período Ordinario de Sesiones de la VII Legislatura de la Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular,en el Palacio de Convenciones,el 18 de diciembre de 2010.

12从菲德尔·卡斯特罗时代至今,国务委员会主席都是国家元首、武装部队总司令,部长会议主席是政府首脑,而且国务委员会主席和部长会议主席由同一人担任。

13Jorge Pérez-López,Foreign Investment in Cuba's“Updating”of Its Economic Model,http://www.ascecuba.org/asce_proceedings/foreign-investment-in-cubas-updating-of-its-economic-model/.

142015年6月24日,时任古巴驻华大使白诗德应邀在中国社会科学院拉丁美洲研究所以“古美关系:起源、发展和前景”为题发表演讲,阐述了古美关系正常化的原因,并指出古美关系正常化第一阶段的三大目标。

151966年《古巴调整法案》规定,古巴人在入境美国一年后可获得美国绿卡。1995年克林顿政府修改该法,规定遣返在海上被美海岸警卫队拦截的古巴偷渡者,但继续接收成功踏上美国领土的古巴人。“干脚湿脚”政策由此而来。

16Department of State of the U.S.A,National Security Presidential Memorandum NSPM-5 entitled“Strengthening the Policy of the United States Toward Cuba”,June 16,2017.http://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2017/10/20/2017-22928/strengthening-the-policy-of-the-united-states-toward-cuba.

17Evita Schmieg,Cuba“Updates”Its Economic Model:Perspectives for Cooperation with the European Union,Berlin,April 2017.http://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/143828316.pdf.

18Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de Cuba,Misiones diplomáticas de Cuba http://misiones.minrex.gob.cu/es.

19Foro de Social Mundial(FSM):Carta de Principios de FSM,http://fsmm2018.org/carta-de-principios/.

20Germán Sánchez Otero,Chávez y el socialismo del siglo XXI,http://www.cubadebate.cu/especiales/2019/01/31/chavez-y-el-socialismo-del-siglo-xxi-i/#.XXHMwfkzIiQ.

21Steve Ellner ed.Latin America's Radical Left:Challenges and Comlexities of Political Power in the Twenty-first Century,Rowman&Littlefield,Lanham,2014,pp.27-28.

22 2017年8月8日,因反对委内瑞拉成立制宪大会,阿根廷、巴西、加拿大、智利、哥伦比亚、哥斯达黎加、危地马拉、洪都拉斯、墨西哥、巴拉圭、巴拿马和秘鲁等12国在利马成立利马集团,批评委内瑞拉“民主秩序遭到破坏”,要求委内瑞拉释放政治犯、举行自由选举、提供人道主义援助。圭亚那和圣卢西亚后来也加入该集团,该集团目前共有14个国家。

23“Aquí estamos y estaremos,libres,soberanos e independientes”,http://www.granma.cu/cuba/2018-12-22/aqui-estamos-y-estaremos-libres-soberanos-e-independientes-22-12-2018-02-12-50,last visit on Sept.5,2019.

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