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徐世澄: 新宪法将巩固古巴社会主义改革成果

作者: 徐世澄  时间: 2020-03-06  来源:日博电竞-「官方网站」

日博电竞2019NIAN2YUEDI,GUBADUIXINXIANFAJINXINGLEQUANMINGONGJUE,JUEDADUOSHUMINZHONGTOUPIAOZANCHENGXINXIANFA。GUBAGONGHEGUOXINXIANFADESHUNLITONGGUO,JIANGYOULIDIGONGGUJINSHIDUONIANLAIGUBAGUOJIAHESHEHUIDEGAIGECHENGGUO。

宪法肯定了古巴国家的社会主义性质

日博电竞1959NIAN1YUE1RI,GUBAGEMINGQUDEQUANGUOXINGSHENGLI。TONGNIAN2YUE7RI,GEMINGZHENGFUBANBULEQILINSHIXIANFAZUOYONGDEGENBENFA。20SHIJI70NIANDAI,GUBAKAISHIZHENGZHIJIGOUTIZHIHUA,1976NIAN2YUE15RI,JINGQUANMINGONGJUETONGGUOLEXIANFA,YUTONGNIAN2YUE24RISHENGXIAO。

日博电竞1976NIANDEXIANFAKENDINGLEGUBAGUOJIADESHEHUIZHUYIXINGZHI、QUELILEGUBAGONGCHANDANGZAIGUBADELINGDAODIWEI、QUEDINGLEGUBADESHEHUIZHUYIZHENGZHI、JINGJI、SHEHUIZHIDUHEWAIJIAOZHENGCE,JUYOUZHONGYAODELISHIYIYIHEZUOYONG。1976NIANXIANFAGUIDING,GUBAGONGHEGUOSHIGONGRENJIEJILINGDAODE、YIGONGNONGHEQITALAODONGZHELIANMENGWEIJICHUDESHEHUIZHUYIGUOJIA。RENMINTONGGUOQUANGUOHEDIFANGRENMINZHENGQUANDAIBIAODAHUIXINGSHIGUOJIAQUANLI。GUBAGONGCHANDANGSHIGUBASHEHUIZHUYIGEMINGHERIBODIANJINGDELINGDAOLILIANG,ZHIDAOSIXIANGSHI“WUWANGBUSHENGDEMAKESILIENINGZHUYIXUESHUO”。GUBADESHEHUIZHUYIJINGJIZHIDUYISHENGCHANZILIAODESHEHUIZHUYIQUANMINSUOYOUZHIWEIJICHU,SHIXINGJIHUAJINGJI,SHIXINGGEJINSUONENG、ANLAOFENPEIDESHEHUIZHUYIYUANZE。QUANGUORENDASHIGUOJIAZUIGAOQUANLIJIGUAN,XINGSHIGUOJIALIFAQUAN,CHANGSHEJIGUANSHIGUOWUWEIYUANHUI。GUIDINGGUOWUWEIYUANHUIZHUXISHIGUOJIAYUANSHOUHEZHENGFUSHOUNAO,JIGUOWUWEIYUANHUIZHUXIHEBUZHANGHUIYIZHUXIYOU1RENDANREN。

日博电竞1992NIANGUBAQUANGUORENDADUI1976NIANXIANFA141TIAOZHONGDE76TIAOZUOLEXIUGAI,ZENGJIAYIJISHANCHUDETIAOKUANYUE30TIAO。2002NIAN6YUE,GUBAJINXINGQUANMINGONGJUEHEXIUXIAN,GAICIXIUXIANZENGJIALEYITIAO“TEBIETIAOKUAN”,JINYIBUQUEDINGXIANFAGUIDINGDEGUBASHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUDEBUKEGENGGAIXING:“QIANGLIEZHICHIJIANYIJIANGSHEHUIZHUYIXINGZHIHEZHENGZHI、SHEHUITIZHIXUANBUWEIBUKEGENGGAI,YICIZUOWEIDUIMEIDIGUOZHUYIZHENGFU2002NIAN5YUE20RIWEIXIEDEZHUANGYANHUIYING。”

制定新宪法的原因和过程

CONG1976NIANXIANFADEZHIDINGHELIANGCIXIUXIANZHIJIN,GUBAGUONEIWAIDEXINGSHIFASHENGLEHENDADEBIANHUA。CONGGUONEILAIKAN,2006NIAN7YUE,YINGUBAGEMINGLINGXIUFEIDEER·KASITELUOSHENGBINGHESHOUSHU,LAOER·KASITELUO(YIXIAJIANCHENG“LAOER”)KAISHIDANFULINGDAOGUBADANGHEGUOJIADEZHONGREN,BINGKAISHILEGUBAJINGJISHEHUIMOSHIGENGXIN(JIGUBAGAIGE)DEJINCHENG。JINGGUOSHIDUONIANDEGAIGE,GUBADANGHEZHENGFUDEFANGZHENZHENGCEJIGUONEIZHENGZHIJINGJIHESHEHUIXINGSHIFASHENGLEZHONGYAODEBIANHUA。

CONGGUOJILAIKAN,20SHIJI80NIANDAIMO90NIANDAICHU,SULIANJIETIYINFASUDONGJUBIAN,GUBADESHEHUIZHUYISHIJIANBIANDEGENGJIAQUZHE。GUBAYUMEIGUOSUIYIYU2015NIAN7YUEHUIFULEWAIJIAOGUANXI,DANMEIGUOYIRANDUIGUBASHIXINGJINGJIMAOYIHEJINRONGDEFENGSUO。YUCITONGSHI,LAMEIDIQUDEXINGSHIYEFASHENGLEHENDADEBIANHUA。XIANXINGDEXIANFAXIANRANYIBUNENGSHIYINGGUONEIWAIXINGSHIBIANHUA,XUYAOZHIDINGXINXIANFA。

日博电竞2013NIAN5YUE13RI,GUGONGZHONGYANGZHENGZHIJUJUEDINGCHENGLIYOULAOERZHUCHIDEXIANFAXIUGAIGONGZUOXIAOZU,FUZEQICAOXIUXIANDEJICHU。2014NIAN6YUE29RI,GAIXIAOZUZHIDINGLEXIUXIANDEJICHU。2018NIAN4YUE18—19RI,GUBAZHAOKAIDIJIUJIEQUANGUORENDACHENGLIHUIYI,HUIYIXUANJU58SUIDEDIYASI-KANEIERWEIGUBAGUOWUWEIYUANHUIZHUXIHEBUZHANGHUIYIZHUXI,JIETIDANRENCIZHIDE87SUIDELAOER,CONGERKAIQILEGUBAGUOJIALINGDAORENXINLAOJIAOTIDEJINCHENG。TONGNIAN6YUE2RI,GUBADIJIUJIEQUANGUORENDAZHAOKAITEBIEHUIYI,JUEDINGZHENGSHIKAISHIXIUXIANJINCHENG,BINGCHENGLIYILAOERWEIZHUXI、DIYASI-KANEIERWEIFUZHUXIDEYOU33MINGRENDADAIBIAOZUCHENGDEXINDEXIUXIANWEIYUANHUI。JINGGUOYIGEDUOYUEJINZHANGGONGZUO,XIUXIANWEIYUANHUIGENJUGUGONGLIUDAHEQIDATONGGUODEZHONGYAOGANGLINGXINGWENJIAN,YIXIANXINGXIANFAWEIJICHU,BINGCANKAOLEQITAYIXIEGUOJIADEXIANFA,ZHIDINGLE《GUBAGONGHEGUOXIANFACAOAN》(YIXIAJIANCHENG《CAOAN》)。TONGNIAN7YUE,GUBADIJIUJIEQUANGUORENDADIYICIHUIYITAOLUNBINGTONGGUOLE《CAOAN》。《CAOAN》BAOKUOXUYAN、11PIAN、24ZHANG、16BUFEN,GONG224TIAO,DUI1976NIANXIANFA(JING1992NIANHE2002NIANLIANGCIXIUXIANHOUWEI137TIAO)ZHONGDE113TIAOTIAOWENZUOLEXIUGAI,XINZENGJIALE87TIAO,QUXIAOLE13TIAO。

宪法《草案》对民众的意见征集及采纳

2018NIAN12YUE18RI,XIUXIANWEIYUANHUICHENGYUAN、GUBAGUOWUWEIYUANHUIMISHUAKESITAZAIQUANGUORENDAHUIYISHANGDUIQUANMINTAOLUNDEQINGKUANGZUOLESHUOMING。TAZHICHU,ZAI8YUEZHI11YUEDEGUBAQUANMINTAOLUNZHONG,GUBAQUANGUOGEDIGEJIECENGMINZHONGGONGZHAOKAILE133681CITAOLUNHUI,YOUJIN900WANRENCIYUHUI,TICHULE783174TIAOYIJIANHEJIANYI。SUIJIZHAOKAIDEGUBADIJIUJIEQUANGUORENDADIERCIHUIYI,ZAIMINZHONGSUOTIYIJIANDEJICHUSHANG,DUI《CAOAN》JINXINGLEBIYAODEXIUGAI。

MINZHONGDEYIJIANZHUYAOJIZHONGZAIYIXIAJIGEFANGMIAN。

日博电竞MINZHONGYAOQIUHUIFUBEI《CAOAN》ZAIXUYANHEDI5TIAOZHONGSHANQUDE“GONGCHANZHUYI”HUO“GONGCHANZHUYISHEHUI”DETIFA。2018NIAN7YUEGONGBUDE《CAOAN》CENGSHANQULEYUANXIANFA《XUYAN》ZHONG“BINGQIEZAIGONGCHANDANGDELINGDAOXIA,WEIJIANLIGONGCHANZHUYISHEHUIERJIXUQIANJIN”HE“DANGRENMENCONGNULIZHIDU、FENGJIANZHIDUHEZIBENZHIDUDENGYIQIEBOXUEZHIDUZHONGJIEFANGCHULAIYIHOU,ZHIYOUZAISHEHUIZHUYIHEGONGCHANZHUYIZHIDUXIA,CAINENGSHIRENLEIHUODEQUANBUZUNYAN”ZHEILIANGDUANHUA,TONGSHISHANQULEDI5TIAOZHONG“XIANGGONGCHANZHUYIWEILAITUIJINDECHONGGAOMUBIAO”DETIFA。ZAIQUANMINTAOLUNZHONG,YOUBUSHAOMINZHONGFANDUISHANQU“GONGCHANZHUYI”DETIFA。ZAIMINZHONGDEQIANGLIEYAOQIUXIA,GUBADIJIUJIEQUANGUORENDADIERCIHUIYIZAITONGGUODEXINXIANFADEXUYANHEDI5TIAOZHONGYOUHUIFULE“GONGCHANZHUYI”DETIFA。

《CAOAN》DUIGUOJIAZHUXIRENQIBUNENGCHAOGUOLIANGJIEDEXIANZHI、SHOURENNIANLINGBUDECHAOGUO60SUIDEGUIDINGHEGUOJIAZHUXICHANSHENGBANFATICHUBUTONGYIJIAN。ZAIQUANMINTAOLUN《CAOAN》DEGUOCHENGZHONG,YOU74450RENYAOQIUQUXIAO《CAOAN》DUIGUOJIAZHUXIRENQIBUDECHAOGUOLIANGJIEDEXIANZHI,24365RENYAOQIUQUXIAO《CAOAN》DUIGUOJIAZHUXISHOURENNIANLINGBUDECHAOGUO60SUIDEGUIDING,11080RENYAOQIUGUOJIAZHUXIYOUZHIJIEXUANJUCHANSHENG。DANSHI,ZUIHOU,QUANGUORENDAHUIYIJUEDING,XINXIANFAWEICHI《CAOAN》DEYOUGUANGUIDINGBUBIAN。YIXIEMINZHONGYAOQIUSHENGZHANGYINGYOUBENSHENGXUANMINZHIJIEXUANJUCHANSHENG。《CAOAN》DI170TIAOGUIDING,“SHENGZHANGYOUGUOJIAZHUXITIMING,QUANGUORENDARENMING”。ZAIQUANMINTAOLUNGUOCHENGZHONG,YOU11289RENZHUZHANG,SHENGZHANGYINGYOUSUOZAISHENGDEMINZHONGZHIJIEXUANJUCHANSHENG。ZAIMINZHONGYIJIANDEJICHUSHANG,XINXIANFADI175TIAOGAIWEISHENGZHANGYOUGUOJIAZHUXITIMING,YOUGAISHENGSUOGUANXIADE(RUOGANGESHI)SHIRENDADAIBIAOXUANJUCHANSHENG。

日博电竞YISHANGQINGKUANGCHONGFENSHUOMING,GUBAXINXIANFADEZHIDINGGUOCHENGSHIMINZHU、TOUMINGDE,SHIDINGCENGSHEJIYUGUANGFANZHENGQIUMINZHONGYIJIANXIANGJIEHEDE。

新宪法的要点及其意义

日博电竞GUBAXINXIANFADUIYUANXIANFA(JIXIANXIANFA)DEXIUGAISHIQUANMIANDE,SHEJIGUOJIADEXINGZHI、JINGJISUOYOUZHIHEZHENGZHIZHIDUDEDIAOZHENG、GONGMINDEQUANLIHEYIWU、WAIJIAOZHENGCEDENGGEGEFANGMIAN。ZONGTILAISHUO,XINXIANFAZHONGSHENGUBADESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDU,QIANGDIAOGUBAGONGCHANDANGSHIGUBAGUOJIAHESHEHUIDELINGDAOLILIANG,JIANCHIMAKESIZHUYIHELIENINGZHUYISHIGUBAGUOJIAHEDANGDEZHIDAOSIXIANGZHIYI。

XINXIANFAZHUYAONEIRONGYOU:ZENGJIALE“FAZHIHESHEHUIGONGZHENG”DINGYI。XINXIANFADI1TIAOGUIDING“GUBASHIYIGEFAZHIHESHEHUIGONGZHENG、MINZHU、DULIHEZHUQUANDESHEHUIZHUYIGUOJIA,SHIYOUSUOYOURENZUCHENGDE、WEILESUOYOURENDETONGYIHEBUKEFENDEGONGHEGUO”。ZHEIBIAOMING,XINXIANFA《CAOAN》QIANGDIAOYAOYIFAZHIGUO。

日博电竞JIANCHIQUANMINSUOYOUZHIWEIJICHU、JIHUAJINGJIWEIZHUDAO,ZENGJIALE“KAOLVSHICHANG”DENEIRONG,BINGCHENGRENSIYOUZHI。XINXIANFAZAIXINZENGJIADEDI2PIANJINGJIJICHUDEDI18TIAOZHONGGUIDING“ZAIGUBAGONGHEGUOSHIXINGYISHEHUIZHUYISHENGCHANZILIAOQUANMINSUOYOUZHIWEISUOYOUZHIZHUYAOXINGSHI,YIJINGJIDEJIHUALINGDAOWEIZHU、WEILESHEHUIDELIYIKAOLV、DIAOJIE、KONGZHISHICHANGDEJINGJITIZHI”。XINXIANFADI22TIAOCHENGRENYIXIASUOYOUZHIXINGSHI:1.SHEHUIZHUYIQUANMINSUOYOUZHI,2.HEZUOSUOYOUZHI,3.ZHENGZHI、QUNZHONGHESHEHUIZUZHISUOYOUZHI,4.SIYOUZHI,5.HUNHESUOYOUZHI,6.LIANHEJIZHIYUFANGSHI,7.GERENSUOYOUZHI。XINXIANFASUIRANTIDAO“KAOLV”SHICHANGYINSU,DANBINGMEIYOUTIDAO“SHEHUIZHUYISHICHANGJINGJI”。

KENDINGLEWAIZIDEZUOYONG。YUANXIANFAZHONG,MEIYOUTIJIWAIGUOZIBEN。XINXIANFADI28TIAOGUIDING,“GUOJIACUJINWAIZI,BINGXIANGWAIZITIGONGBAOZHANG,WAIZISHIGUOJIAJINGJIFAZHANDEZHONGYAOYINSU”。ZHEIBIAOMING,GUBAKENDINGWAIZIZAIFAZHANBENGUOJINGJIZHONGDEZUOYONG。

日博电竞XINXIANFAGUIDINGSHELIGUOJIAZHUXI、ZONGLIZHI。GUANYUGUOJIAJIEGOU,YUANXIANFADI69TIAOGUIDING“QUANGUORENMINZHENGQUANDAIBIAODAHUISHIZUIGAOGUOJIAQUANLIJIGUAN,TADAIBIAOBINGFANYINGQUANTIRENMINDEZHUQUANYIZHI”,XINXIANFADI105TIAOZHONGFULEZHEIYIGUIDING,DANBUTONGDESHI,YUANXIANFADI74TIAOGUIDING“GUOWUWEIYUANHUIZHUXISHIGUOJIAYUANSHOUHEZHENGFUSHOUNAO”,XINXIANFADI121TIAOGUIDING,“QUANGUORENMINZHENGQUANDAIBIAODAHUIZHUXI、FUZHUXIHEMISHUTONGSHISHIGUOWUWEIYUANHUIZHUXI、FUZHUXIHEMISHU,ZAIJIASHANGYOUQUANGUORENMINZHENGQUANDAIBIAODAHUIJUEDINGDEQITACHENGYUANZUCHENGGUOWUWEIYUANHUI”。ZHEIYIWEIZHE,XINXIANFASHISHIHOU,GUOWUWEIYUANHUIJIANGCHENGWEIQUANGUORENDADECHANGSHEJIGOU,GUOWUWEIYUANHUIZHUXIBUZAISHIGUOJIAYUANSHOUJIANZHENGFUSHOUNAO。XINXIANFADI125TIAOGUIDINGGUOJIAZHUXISHIGUOJIAYUANSHOU;DI126TIAOGUIDING,GUOJIAZHUXIYOUQUANGUORENDAXUANJUCHANSHENG,RENQI5NIAN,KEYILIANRENYIJIE;DI127TIAOGUIDING,GUOJIAZHUXINIANLINGXUMAN35SUI,SHOUCIDANGXUANSHI,NIANLINGBUDECHAOGUO60SUI;DI140TIAOGUIDING,ZONGLISHIZHENGFUSHOUNAO。ZHEIYIWEIZHE,GUBAJIANGGAIBIANGUOWUWEIYUANHUIZHUXI(GUOJIAYUANSHOU)JIANRENBUZHANGHUIYIZHUXI(ZHENGFUSHOUNAO)DETIZHI,JINHOUGUBADEGUOJIAZHUXIBUZAIJIANRENZONGLI,YEBUZAISHIGUOWUWEIYUANHUIZHUXI。

XINXIANFADI170TIAOQUXIAOLESHENGYIJIDERENMINZHENGQUANDAIBIAODAHUI,CHENGLIRENMINZHENGQUANSHENGZHENGFU,SHENGZHENGFUYOUSHENGZHANGHESHENGLISHIHUIZUCHENG。GUANYUDIFANGRENMINQUANLIJIGUAN,YUANXIANFADI105TIAOHEDI106TIAOGUIDING,GUBASHELISHENGRENMINZHENGQUANDAIBIAODAHUIHESHIJIRENMINZHENGQUANDAIBIAODAHUI;YUANXIANFADI117TIAOGUIDING,“SHENG、SHIRENMINZHENGQUANDAIBIAODAHUIZHUXIDANGRANDISHIGAIDIXINGZHENGJIGUANDEZHUXIHEGUOJIAZAIDUIYINGXINGZHENGQUHUADEDAIBIAO”,JIGUBASHIXING“YIXINGHEYI”ZHIDU,SHENGRENDAHESHIRENDAXINGSHISHENGZHENGFUHESHIZHENGFUDEXINGZHENGGONGNENG。XINXIANFADI182TIAOGUIDING,SHENGLISHIHUIYOUSHENGZHANG、FUSHENGZHANG、SUOXIASHIDESHIRENDAZHUXI、FUZHUXIHESHIZHANGZUCHENG,ZHEIBIAOMINGJINHOUGUBADIFANGZHENGFUBUZAISHIXING“YIXINGHEYI”DEZHIDU。

日博电竞GUOJIFANGMIAN,XINXIANFAZENGJIALE“FANDUIGEZHONGXINGSHIDEKONGBUZHUYI、DAGUIMOSHASHANGXINGWUQIDESHIYONG”(DI16TIAODI12KUAN)、“BAOHUHUANJINGHEYINGDUIQIHOUBIANHUA”(DI16TIAODI6KUAN)、“WEIHUWANGLUOMINZHUHUA,QIANZESHIYONGWANGLUOJINXINGDIANFU、POHUAIZHUQUANGUOJIA、ZHIZAOBUWENDINGDEHUODONG”(DI16TIAODI12KUAN),DENGDENG。XINXIANFABAOLIULEYOUGUANTONGLAMEIGUOJIAYITIHUAHEHEZUODEYIYUAN、CHANGDAODISANSHIJIEGUOJIATUANJIEQILAIFANDUIDIGUOZHUYIHEXINZHIMINZHUYIZHENGCE、CHENGRENMINZUJIEFANGZHANZHENGYIJIWUZHUANGFANKANGQINLVEHEZHANLINGDEHEFAXING,BAYUANZHUBEIQINLVEZHEJIQIWEIZHENGQUJIEFANGHEZIJUEERDOUZHENGDERENMINSHIWEIZIJIDEGUOJIZHUYIYIWUDENG。

日博电竞2018NIAN12YUE,GUBADIJIUJIEQUANGUORENDADIERCIHUIYIZAIXISHOUGUANGDAMINZHONGYIJIANHEJIANYIDEJICHUSHANG,DUI《CAOAN》ZHONGDE134TIAO、YUE60%DETIAOWENZUOLEXIUGAIBUCHONG,TONGGUOLEXINXIANFADEDINGGAO。XINXIANFABAOKUOXUYAN、11PIAN、24ZHANG、18BUFEN,GONG226TIAO,BI《CAOAN》ZENGJIALE2TIAO,BIYUANXIANFA(JIXIANXINGXIANFA)ZENGJIALE89TIAO。

日博电竞ZONGERYANZHI,GUBAXINXIANFAZAIQUANMINGONGJUEZHONGSHUNLITONGGUO,WEIGUBASHEHUIZHUYIMOSHIGENGXINDELILUNYUZHIDUTIGONGLEYOULIDEFALVBAOZHANG,JUYOUZHONGDADELISHIYIYIHEXIANSHIYIYI。GUBAXINXIANFADEBANBUHESHISHI,JIANGJINYIBUHANGSHIGUBASHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUDEJICHU。TONGGUOXINXIANFADEZHIDINGHESHISHI,GUBADANGHEZHENGFUJIANGJIANDINGYIFAZHIGUODEJUEXINHEXINXIN,JIJIGAISHANZHIGUOLIZHENGTIXI。GUBAXINXIANFAJIANGCONGGUOJIAGENBENDAFADEGAODU,JINYIBUSAOCHUZHIYUEGUBASHEHUIZHUYIMOSHI“GENGXIN”DEGEZHONGGUANNIANHEZHIDUFANGMIANDEJIBAN,CONGERJIAKUAIGUBASHEHUIZHUYIMOSHI“GENGXIN”MUBIAO——“FANRONGYUKECHIXUSHEHUIZHUYI”DESHIXIAN。

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