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方旭飞: 试析20世纪末以来拉美左翼执政对民主政治发展的影响

作者: 方旭飞  时间: 2020-03-29  来源:日博电竞-「官方网站」

MINZHUZAIXIANDAIXIFANGZHENGZHIXUEZHONGSHIYIGECHONGMANZHENGYIDEGAINIAN。YIBANYIYISHANGDEMINZHU, SHIZHICHENGXUMINZHUHUOZHEXUANJUMINZHU, QIANGDIAOSHIXIANMINZHUDECHENGXU。XIONGBITERENWEI:“MINZHUFANGFAJIUSHINEIZHONGWEIZUOCHUZHENGZHIJUEDINGERSHIXINGDEZHIDUANPAI, ZAIZHEIZHONGANPAIZHONG, MOUXIERENTONGGUOZHENGQURENMINXUANPIAOQUDEZUOJUEDINGDEQUANLI。”1HENGTINGDUNYERENWEI, PINGPANXIFANGZHENGZHITIZHISHIFOUMINZHU, ZHUYAOSHIKANQIZHONGZUIYOUYINGXIANGDEJITIJUECEZHESHIFOUTONGGUOGONGPING、CHENGSHIHEDINGQIDEXUANJUCHANSHENG, CANXUANDEHOUXUANRENSHIFOUKEYIZIYOUDIJINGZHENGXUANPIAO, YIJISHIFOUSUOYOUDECHENGNIANRENDOUKEYICANJIAXUANJU。2ZAIXIANDAIXIFANGSHEHUI, MINZHUDEZHUYAOMOSHISHIDAIYIZHIMINZHU, CANYU、JINGZHENGHEWENZESHIQISANGEJIBENYUANZE。DANSHIDAIYIZHIMINZHUSHIYIZHONGYOUXIANDEHEJIANJIEDEMINZHU, YINWEITAJIANGMINZHONGDEZHENGZHICANYUXIANDINGZAIMEIGEJINIANJUXINGYICIDEGONGMINTOUPIAOXINGWEIZHONG, GONGZHONGBINGBUQINZIXINGSHIQUANLI, ZHISHIXUANZENENGDAIBIAOQILIYIDERENLAISHISHITONGZHI。3BUTONGYISHIXINGTAIHEZHENGZHILICHANGDEZHENGZHIZHUTIDUIYUCAIQUHEZHONGMINZHU、RUHETIGAOMINZHUZHILIANGYOUBUTONGDEXUANZE。TONGCHANG, TAMENBENZHEGEZISUOJIANSHOUDEMINZHUGUAN, JIANG“GEZISUOPIANAIDEMINZHUMOSHICHUIXUCHENGGENGMINZHUDEMOSHI, ERTAMENSUOFANDUIDEMOSHIZEBEICHIZEWEIFEIMINZHUMOSHI。”4YINCI, TAMENDEZHENGZHIHEZHANLVEXUANZEDUIMINZHUZHENGZHIFAZHANJINCHENGKEYICHANSHENGBUTONGDEYINGXIANG。

日博电竞20SHIJI70NIANDAIMO, LAMEIXIANQI“DISANBO”MINZHUHUALANGCHAO, DAO20SHIJI90NIANDAILAMEIDIQUDABUFENGUOJIAJINRUWENRENZHIZHENG、ANZHAOZICHANJIEJIMINZHUDAIYIZHIZHILIGUOJIADEMINZHUHUAXINSHIQI。BAOZHANGGONGMINZHENGZHIZIYOUHEQUANLI、GONGGUHESHENHUAMINZHUCHENGWEILAMEIMINZHUZHENGZHIFAZHANDEJIBENMUBIAOHEFAZHANFANGXIANG。LAMEIZUOYISHILAMEIDIQUZHENGZHIFAZHANJINCHENGDEZHONGYAOCANYUZHE, WEIDIQUGEGUOSHIXIANWEIQUANXIANGMINZHUDEZHUANXINGZUOCHULEZHONGYAODEGONGXIAN。20SHIJIMOYILAI, LAMEIZHENGZHI“ZUOZHUAN”, YIPIJUYOUBUTONGYISHIXINGTAIHEZHENGZHI、LISHIBEIJINGDEZUOYIZHENGDANGHEYUNDONGLINGXIUTONGGUOXUANJUSHANGTAIZHIZHENG, DUIBENGUOZHENGZHI、JINGJI、SHEHUIHEDUIWAIZHENGCEJINXINGLESHENKEDIAOZHENGHEGAIGE。ZI2015NIANKAISHI, ZHEIYIZUOYIZHIZHENGLANGCHAOKAISHIZHUBUXIAOTUI, JINGUANRUCI, ZUOYIZHENGFUDEGAIGEDUIBENGUOSHENZHIDIQUDEZHENGZHIHEFAZHANDOUJIANGCHANSHENGCHIXUDEZHONGYAOYINGXIANG。BENWENNITONGGUOKAOCHALAMEIZUOYIMINZHUGUAN、WENHEZUOYIHEJIJINZUOYI“SHENHUAMINZHU”DEZHUYAOTUJINGHESHIJIAN, DUILAMEIZUOYIZHIZHENGZAIMINZHUZHENGZHIFAZHANLINGYUDEYINGXIANGJINXINGPINGJIA。5

一、拉美左翼的民主观

日博电竞LAMEIZUOYIDEMINZHUGUANJINGLILEYOUYANQIHEHUSHIMINZHUXIANGZUNZHONGMINZHU、JIJIRONGRUXUANJUMINZHUDEZHUANBIAN, ERQIETICHUTIGAOMINZHUZHILIANG、JIAQIANGMINZHONGZHENGZHICANYUYIJIZENGQIANGZHENGFUDUIMINZHONGSUQIUDEHUIYINGXINGDENGSHENHUAMINZHUDESUQIU。BUTONGZUOYIZUZHIDEMINZHUGUANYECUNZAICHABIE, YIBANLAISHUO, JIJINZUOYIQIANGDIAOMINZHONGSHOUQUANHECANYU, WENHEZUOYIZEJIANCHIZAIDAIYIZHIMINZHUDEQIANTIXIAGAISHANMINZHUZHENGZHI。

日博电竞(YI) ZUNZHONGHEJIJIRONGRUXUANJUMINZHU

日博电竞20SHIJILIUQISHINIANDAI, DADUOSHULAMEIZUOYIZUZHICHANGDAOMAKESIZHUYI、SHEHUIZHUYIHUOQITAZHUZHANGGEMINGXINGSHEHUIBIANGEDEYISHIXINGTAI, ZHUZHANGTONGGUOBAOLIGEMINGDEFANGSHIDUOQUZHENGQUAN, ZONGSHIJINSHENDIBIMIANCANYUXUANJUJINGZHENG。JINGLILEJUNSHIDUCAIZHENGFUDETONGZHIZHIHOU, LAMEIZUOYIZHUJIANRENSHIDAOMINZHUDEZHONGYAOXING。XUDUOZUOYIZUZHIFANGQIBAOLIGEMING, BUZAIJIANGMINZHUSHIWEIZICHANJIEJITONGZHIDEGONGJU, KAISHIZHICHIMINZHUDEGUIZE, RENWEI“PIAOXIANGSHITONGXIANGQUANLIDEDAOLU”, CAIYONGDAIYIZHIMINZHUZHIDUSHI“ZHENGZHIJINBUDEZUIHAOMEIJIE”, ZHIYOUTONGGUOXUANJUCAINENGTUIFANWEIQUANZHENGQUAN。6SUIZHEMINZHUHUAJINCHENGDEDAGUIMOZHANKAI, LAMEIZUOYIDUIXUANJUMINZHUDACHENGGONGSHI, MINZHUBEIPUBIANSHIWEISHIXIANBIANGEXINGMUBIAOBUKEHUOQUEDETUJING。

CONGYANQIHEHUSHIMINZHUDAOJIESHOUHEZHICHIXUANJUMINZHU, SHILAMEIZUOYIFAZHANSHISHANGZHONGYAODEYISHIXINGTAIZHUANBIAN。ZHUGUANYISHIDEGAIBIANWEISHIJIANZHONGZHENGZHIZHANLVEDEZHUANXIANGDIANDINGLEJICHU。“DISANBOMINZHUHUA”ZHIHOU, BAOKUOGONGCHANDANGHESHEHUIDANGZAINEIDEDADUOSHUZUOYIZUZHIBUZAITICHANGBAOLIGEMING, SHENZHIYOUJIDUIYUNDONGZUZHIDOUMANGZHECANJIAXUANJUJINGZHENG, LITUJIANGZIJIDEDAIBIAOSONGJINGEJIYIHUIHEZHENGFU。BAXILAOGONGDANG、ZHILISHEHUIDANG、WULAGUIGUANGFANZHENXIANDENGZHUMINGZUOYIZHENGDANGZAIXUDUOZHOU、SHIYIJIDEDIFANGZHENGFUZHIZHENGBINGJILEIZHIZHENGJINGYAN, CHENGWEIBENGUOZHENGZHIWUTAISHANGDEZHONGYAOJINGZHENGZHE, CONGERWEI20SHIJIMO21SHIJICHULAMEIZHENGZHI“ZUOZHUAN”DIANDINGLEJICHU。

日博电竞(ER) PIPAN“MINZHUCHIZI”, ZHUZHANG“SHENHUAMINZHU”

日博电竞20SHIJI70NIANDAIMOYIHOU, LAMEIDIQUJINRUDIQUZHENGZHIFAZHANSHISHANGZUICHIJIUDEMINZHUZHILIDEXINSHIQI, GEZHENGZHILILIANGDEQUANLIDOUZHENGZHUYAOSHITONGGUOGONGKAI、TOUMING、GUANGFANCANYUDEXUANJUJINGZHENGLAISHIXIANDE。DANSHI, LAMEIWEIQUANZHUYIDEZHONGJIEYINGLAIDEMINZHUBANBENSHI“YOUXIANMINZHU”, ZAIMANZUMINZHONGDUIGONGMINQUAN、SHEHUIFULIHEZHENGZHIBAORONGDESUQIUYIJIHUAJIEXUANMINBUMANHEYUANHENDENGFANGMIANCUNZAIZHUDUOYANZHONGWENTI, LAMEIMINZHUZHENGZHISHENXIAN“CHIZI”SHENYUAN。“MINZHUCHIZI”XIANXIANGDECUNZAI, SHIDELAMEIGEDANGPAIHEZHENGZHILILIANGYISHIDAOGOUJIANMINZHUDEGONGZUOZAIWEIQUANXIANGMINZHUGUODUZHIHOUBINGMEIYOUZUIZHONGWANCHENG, SUIKAISHIZAICITAOLUNMINZHUDEBENZHIHEJIAZHIDEWENTI。SHENMESHIMINZHU、YINGGAISHISHIHEZHONGMINZHUMOSHIDENGWENTICHENGWEIGUANGFANTANTAODEYITI。ZUO、YOUYIZHENYINGDUICIZUOCHULEBUTONGDEHUIYING。

日博电竞YIBANLAISHUO, LAMEIYOUYIZHUZHANGSHISHIZIYOUMINZHUMOSHI (DAIYIZHIMINZHUZUIPUBIANDEXINGSHI) , BINGJIANGQIKANCHENGYIZHONGKEYIDEDAOZIZHENGDEHEFADEMINZHUBANBEN;CHUJIANGXUANJUJINGZHENGZUOWEIJIEDINGMINZHUDEZUIDIBIAOZHUNZHIWAI, HAIJIANGYANLUN、JIESHEHEZHIQINGQUANDENGGONGMINQUANZUOWEIMINZHUZHIDUDEBIYAOTIAOJIAN, JIANGLIXIAN、SIFADULI、FENSANHEXIANZHIZHENGZHIQUANLIYIJISANQUANZHIJIANDEJIANDUYUZHIHENGZUOWEIMINZHUDEHEXINTEZHENGHEPANDUANMINXUANZHENGQUANSHIFOUZHENZHENGHEFADEBIAOZHUN。

日博电竞LAMEIZUOYISIXIANGJIAZAIXUANQUHEZHONGMINZHUMOSHIDEWENTISHANG, ZHIYIZIYOUMINZHUZHIDUSHIWEIYIDEMINZHUMOSHI, DUILAMEIMINZHUZHIXUDEQUEXIANJINXINGLEZHUDUOPIPAN, BINGTICHUCONGMINZHUDEJUECEJIZHIHEMINZHUDESHEHUIJINGJITIAOJIANZHEILIANGGEFANGMIANRUSHOUTIGAOMINZHUZHILIANG。BUFENZUOYIRENSHISHENZHITICHU, WEILESHIGUOJIABIANDEGENGWEIMINZHU, JIUBIXUTONGGUORENMINCANYUZHIXIANLAIZHONGJIANZHENGZHI, ZHIXIANDAHUIJIXINXIANFADOUXUYAOHUODEQUANMINGONGTOUDEPIZHUN。7ZAIMINZHUDEHEXINTEZHENGHEZHENGQUANHEFAXINGFANGMIAN, LAMEIZUOYIRENWEIYOUYITICHUDESUOWEI“MINZHUDEHEXINTEZHENG”BINGFEIPANDUANMINZHUZHENGZHIZHIDUSHIFOUHEFADEWEIYIBIAOZHUN;ZIYOUMINZHUZHIDUDECHANGDAOZHESUOTICHUDE、YONGYIXIANZHIMINXUANGUANYUANQUANLIDEGEZHONGJIZHI, CHANGCHANGHUIBIANCHENGDUIMINZHUBENSHENDEXIANZHI;ZAICHANGTAIZHENGZHIZHONG, YOUHENDUOYITISHIXUYAOYOUXUANPIAODUOSHUZHIJUEDINGDE, YINCI, BUNENGMANGMUJIESHOUJIANGHUADEXIANZHENGTIZHI。CIWAI, LAMEIZUOYIZHIYIJIANGZIYOUZHIYUPINGDENGZHISHANGDEZIYOUZHUYIMINZHUGUAN, RENWEIMINZHUYUSHEHUIJINGJIPINGDENGSHIMIQIEXIANGGUANDE, SHENHUAMINZHUDEQIANTISHIJIEJUESHEHUIJINGJIWENTI, SHIXIANZHENGZHIPINGDENGDEQIANTISHIJINGJIPINGDENG, ZHIYOUZAIJINGJIJINGYINGMENYOUYIYUANSHISHIZHENGZHIPINGDENGDEQIANTITIAOJIANXIA, GONGMINDEPINGDENGZHENGZHIQUANCAINENGDEDAOYOUXIAOBAOZHANG。YINER, LAMEIZUOYIZHUZHANGCAIQUCUOSHIZUZHIJIANGJINGJIQUANJIZHONGZAIZHENGZHITEQUANZHESHOUZHONG。

(SAN) LAMEIJIJINZUOYIYUWENHEZUOYIZAIMINZHUGUANSHANGDECHABIE

20SHIJIMOJUEQIDELAMEIZUOYIZONGTISHANGRENTONGMINZHUDEYOUXIGUIZE。DANSHOUGUONEIWAIHUANJINGBIANHUAHELISHICHUANTONGDEYINGXIANG, ZAIZHENGZHIMINZHUDEYOUXIANSHIXIANG、SHENHUAMINZHUDEFANGSHIHEMUBIAODENGFANGMIAN, BUTONGDEZUOYIZUZHIZHIJIANCUNZAIFENQI。

日博电竞WEINEIRUILA、BOLIWEIYAHEEGUADUOERDENGGUOZUOYIJUEQIZHISHI, ZHENGZHICHUANTONGZHENGDANGSHUAILUO, ZHENGDANGZHIDUSUIPIANHUA, DAIYIZHIMINZHUMIANLINWEIJI。ZUOYIZHIZHENGHOUSUIJICAIQUJIAOWEIJIJINDEBIANGEMOSHI, SHITUDAPOCHUANTONGDEZHENGZHIZHIXU, ZHONGJIANXINDEZHENGZHITIZHI。ZHEIXIEZUOYIZHENGQUANSHENSHOULAMEIMINCUIZHUYICHUANTONGDEYINGXIANG, XINGCHENGLEJUYOUMINCUIZHUYITESEDEMINZHUGUAN:QIANGDIAORENMINZHUQUANHEMINZHONGFUQUAN, TUCHURENMINERFEIGONGMINZAIMINZHUZHENGZHIZHONGDEZHONGYAOXING, RENWEIRENMINDEQUANLICHAOYUEGERENDEQUANLI;RENWEICHUANTONGZHENGDANGHEYIHUISHIZHENGZHIFUBAIHEGUATOULIYIDEGONGJU。DANSHI, JIJINZUOYIBINGFEICHANGDAOCHEDIFANGQIDAIYIZHI, ERSHITONGGUODAGUIMOZHENGZHIDONGYUANHEGULIMINZHONGZHIJIECANYUZHENGZHILAIMIBUDAIYIZHIMINZHUDEQUEXIANHEBUZU, ZUIZHONGJIANLICANYUZHIHEDAIYIZHIXIANGJIEHEDE、YICANYUWEIHEXINHEZHUDAODEXINXINGMINZHUMOSHI。

YUJIJINZUOYIBUTONG, BAXI、WULAGUIHEZHILIDENGGUOZUOYIZHENGDANGZAIMINZHUHUAJINCHENGZHONGBUDUANDIAOZHENGZHENGZHIZHANLVEHELUXIAN, ZHENGZHILINIANHEZHENGCEZHUZHANGRIYIWENHE。TAMENDEMINZHUGUANQIANGDIAOGERENZIYOU、FAZHIHEZHENGFUJIGOUZHIJIANXIANGHUZHIHENGDEZHONGYAOXING, JIANGDAIYIJIGOUYOUQISHIYIHUIHEZHENGDANGKANCHENGSHIZHENGZHIXINGWEIDETEQUANJIGOU, ZHIYIZAIGONGGONGLINGYUZHIWAIJINXINGZHENGZHICANYU, FANDUIWEIQUANZHUYI, ZHICHIGONGZHENGTOUMINGDEXUANJU, QIANGDIAORENQUANBAOHU。ZHIZHENGHOU, TAMENZAIJIYOUMINZHUTIZHINEIJINXINGZHENGZHIJINGZHENG, JIANCHIDAIYIZHIMINZHU, JIANCHISHIYONGZHUYIDEZHENGZHIZHANLVE, ZUNXUNDAIYIZHIMINZHUHEZIYOUMINZHUDEJIBENYUANZE, ZUNZHONGGONGMINZIYOU, JIAQIANGXUANJUMINZHUCHENGXU, ZHUZHANGJIANDUYUZHIHENG, BAOZHENGFANDUIPAIDEZHENGZHIQUANLI。

二、拉美左翼深化民主的实践

日博电竞LAMEIJIJINZUOYIYUWENHEZUOYIBUJINYOUBUTONGDEMINZHUGUAN, ERQIEZHIZHENGHOUZAISHISHIZHENGZHIGAIGEHESHENHUAMINZHUDEFANGSHIDENGFANGMIANYECUNZAICHABIE。WEINEIRUILA、BOLIWEIYAHEEGUADUOERSANGUOJIJINZUOYIZHENGFUJIANGCANYUZHIMINZHUZUOWEIBENGUOZHENGZHIBIANGEDEGENBENMUBIAO, TONGGUOCUJINMINZHONGCANYU, GUANCHEMINZHONGFUQUANDEMINZHUGUAN, BINGYIXINXIANFAZUOWEIZHIDAO, ZHIDINGHESHISHILEXUDUODONGYUANMINZHONGCANYUDEJIZHIHECUOSHI。ERZAIBAXI、WULAGUIHEZHILIDENGWENHEZUOYIZHIZHENGDEGUOJIA, RENGRANJIANCHIDAIYIZHIMINZHUZUOWEIMINZHUZHENGZHIDEJIBENDAOXIANG, CANYUZHIMINZHUSHISHIDEGUANGDUHESHENDUYUANBURUJIJINZUOYIZHENGQUAN。

(YI) JIJINZUOYIJIJITUIJINCANYUZHIMINZHURIBODIANJING

“CANYUZHIMINZHU” (HUOCHENG“CANYUSHIMINZHU”) SHIZHIMINZHONGTONGGUOZHIJIECANYUZHENGFUJUECELAIMIBUSHENZHIDAITICHUANTONGDEXUANJUZHIDUHEYUDAIYIZHIMINZHUXIANGGUANDEYOUSHUOHUODONG。8LAMEIJIJINZUOYIZHENGFUJIANGRIBODIANJINGJUYOUBENGUOTESEDE“21SHIJISHEHUIZHUYI”ZUOWEIFAZHANZHANLVEHEFANGXIANG, TUIJINZHENGZHI、JINGJIHESHEHUIDEGENBENZHUANBIAN。JIANLIYICANYUZHIMINZHUWEIJICHUDEXINXINGMINZHUMOSHISHIRIBODIANJING“21SHIJISHEHUIZHUYI”DEZHONGYAOMUBIAOHEJICHU。WEINEIRUILA、BOLIWEIYAHEEGUADUOERSANGUODOUZHIDINGLEXINXIANFAZUOWEICANYUZHIMINZHURIBODIANJINGDEZHIDUBAOZHANG, QIANGDIAOGAIGEXIANXINGZHENGZHIJIEGOU, QIANGHUACANYUJIZHI, YIJIUZHENGLISHIYILIUDEJIDUBUPINGDENG、BUMINZHUZHUANGTAI。CIWAI, SANGUODEXINXIANFAZUOWEIGAIGEDEZHIDAOXINGWENJIAN, DEDAOLEQUANMINGONGTOUDEPIZHUN, HUODELEZUIDACHENGDUDEMINYIZHICHI。

1.WEINEIRUILA“CANYUDEHEZHURENGONGSHIDEMINZHU”

CHAWEISIZONGTONGZAIQIZHIZHENGDE14NIANLI (1999—2013NIAN) , YIGAIBIANCHUANTONGZHENGZHIZHIDU、JIANLIXINXINGDETIDAIXINGMINZHUMOSHIWEIJIREN。1999 NIANJIUZHIZONGTONGHOU, CHAWEISIJIUTICHUJINXING“BOLIWAERGEMING”, ZAIZHENGZHILINGYUDUIJIUDEZHENGZHIZHIXUJINXINGGAIGE。TARENWEI, DAIYIZHIMINZHUSHIYOUJINGYINGCAOZONGBINGWEIJINGYINGRIBODIANJINGDEMINZHU;GONGMINSUIKEYICANJIATOUPIAOXUANJUDAIYANREN, DANCHUCIZHIWAIBINGBUBEIQIDAISHERUZHENGZHISHENGHUO, QIJIEGUOJIUSHIZHENGZHIJIAMENKEYIWEISUOYUWEI, ZUIZHONGDAOZHIFUBAIHELANYONGQUANLI;ER“BOLIWAERGEMING”SUOYAODAZAODEMINZHUSHI“CANYUDEHEZHURENGONGSHIDEMINZHU”, ZHEIYIMINZHUZHIDUYOUYUDAIYIZHIMINZHUZHIDU。9

日博电竞CHAWEISITONGGUOLIXIANDEFANGSHI, ZHIDINGLECANYUZHIMINZHUZHENGZHIGAIGEDEMUBIAO、XINZHENGZHIZHIXUDEJIBENYUANZEHEZHUYAONEIRONG。SHOUXIAN, 1999NIAN12YUEYOUQUANMINGONGTOUTONGGUODEXINXIANFAJIUCANYUZHIMINZHUDEDIWEI、XINGZHIHENEIHANJINXINGLECHANSHU。TAGUIDINGWEINEIRUILABOLIWAERGONGHEGUOSHI“MINZHUDE、CANYUDEHEZHURENGONGDESHEHUI”10, XINZHENGQUANZHENGZHIBIANGEDEJICHUSHIRENMINDUIGONGGONGSHIWUDEJIJICANYU。CANYUZHIMINZHUSHIZHAGENYUMINZHONGCANYUDEMINZHU, ZHIZAISHOUQUANJIRENMIN, PEIYANGTAMENCHENGWEIXIANGYOUCHONGFENZIGEDEGONGMIN, ZUIZHONGGAIBIANGONGMINQUANLIFENPEIBUGONGDEZHUANGKUANG。“SUOYOUGONGMINYOUQUANZIYOUCANYUGONGGONGSHIWU”, “RENMINDUIGONGGONGSHIWUDEZHIDING、ZHIXINGHEGUANLIDECANYUSHISHIXIANZHURENWENGMINZHUDEBIYAOTIAOJIAN”。11

QICI, XINXIANFAHAICHANSHULEDAIYIZHIMINZHUYUCANYUZHIMINZHUZHIJIANDEGUANXI。XINXIANFAGUIDING:WEINEIRUILALIGUODEJIBENYUANZEZHIYISHIJIANLIYIGE“GONGZHENG、MINZHUDESHEHUIQUANLIGUOJIA”, GUOJIAJIYAOBAOZHENGGERENMINZHUQUANLI, YOUYAOBAOZHENGSHEHUIQUANLI, SHIGERENLIYIYUSHEHUILIYIXIANGJIEHEDEGUOJIA;JIANLIXINDEYIYUANZHIDEQUANGUODAIBIAODAHUI、XINDEZUIGAOFAYUANHEXINDEXUANJUWEIYUANHUI, YONGTAMENFENBIEDAITIJIUDEDAIYIZHIMINZHUZHENGZHIXIADELIFA、SIFAHEXUANJUJIGOU;ZHENGFUJIQIZHENGZHISHITI“YINGYONGYUANSHIMINZHUDE、CANYUXINGDE、XUANJUXINGDE、FENSANDE、TIDAIXINGDE、FUZERENDEHEDUOYUANHUADE, SHOUQUANHERENQISHIKECHEXIAODE”12。YINCI, XINXIANFABINGMEIYOUZHONGJIEDAIYIZHI, ERSHIJIANGDAIYIZHIYUZHIJIEDECANYUJIZHIXIANGJIEHE, CONGERXIAOCHUDAIYIZHIMINZHUDEQUEXIAN, ZUIZHONGJIANLIYIZHONGYICANYUZHIWEIJICHUHEZHUDAODEXINXINGMINZHUMOSHI。

日博电竞ZAICI, XINXIANFAHAIJIUGONGMINRUHESHIXIANCANYUQUANJINXINGLECHANSHU。DI70TIAOGUIDINGLEGONGMINYOUQUANCANYUDEGEXIANGZHENGZHIHUODONG:GONGWUYUANDEXUANJU, QUANMINGONGJUE, DUIGONGZHONGYIJIANDEZIXUN, GONGWUYUANDEBAMIAN, LIFA、LIXIANHEXUANJUDECHANGYI, SHIZHENGHUIYI, GONGMINJIHUI13DENGDENG。GENJUXINXIANFAGUIDING, CHAWEISIZHIZHENGQIJIANZHIDINGBINGSHISHIDEMINZHUCANYUJIZHIZHUYAOBAOKUO:GELEIGONGTOU (BAOKUOZIXUNGONGTOU、BAMIANGONGTOU、PIZHUNGONGTOUHEXUANBUXUANJUJIEGUOWUXIAODEGONGTOUDENGDENG) , DIFANGGONGGONGGUIHUAWEIYUANHUI, GONGMINJIHUI, SHEQUWEIYUANHUI, SHEHUIJIANDU (ZHIGONGMINYOUQUANDUISUOYOUGONGGONGGUANLIHUODONGJINXINGSHENJIHEJIANDU) , HEZUOSHEYIJICANYUGUOJIAJIGOUHESHEHUIJIHUA (JIGONGMINYOUQUANCANYUZUIGAOFAYUANFAGUAN、GUOJIAZONGSHENJIZHANGHEQUANGUOXUANJUWEIYUANHUIWEIYUANDETIMING, CANYUGEXIANG“SHIMINGJIHUA”) , DENGDENG。

SHEQUWEIYUANHUISHICHAWEISIZHENGFUGOUJIANCANYUZHIMINZHUDEZHONGYAOCUOSHI。2005NIANKAISHITUIXING“21SHIJISHEHUIZHUYI”ZHIHOU, CHAWEISITICHULE“RENMINQUANLI”BINGSHIZHIYUCANYUZHIMINZHUSIXIANGXIANGJIEHEDELINIAN。“RENMINQUANLI”SHIZHIYOUZUZHIDERENMINBUMENYOUQUANZHIJIECANYUGONGGONGSHIWUDEJUECE。“RENMINQUANLI”DETICHUYIWEIZHEWEINEIRUILAGUOJIA—SHEHUIGUANXIYIJIRENMINZAIGONGGONGSHIWUZHONGDEJIAOSEHEDIWEIDEZHONGXINJIEDING。ZHENGFUTONGGUOSHEQUWEIYUANHUIBASHEHUIZUZHI、SHEQUTUANTIHEGONGMINGETIZUZHIQILAI, ZHIJIETAOLUNHEZHIDINGGONGGONGZHENGCEHEGAIGEJIHUA, YIBIANDUISHEQUJUMINDEXUQIUZUOCHUZUIZHIJIE、ZUIJISHIDEFANYING。SHEQUWEIYUANHUIYINERBEISHIWEITIXIAN“RENMINQUANLI”DEZUZHIHEXINXINGDEJICENGMINZHUZHENGZHIJIGOU。2006 NIANGUOHUITONGGUODE《SHEQUWEIYUANHUIFA》GUIDING, SHEQUSUOYOUZHONGYAOJUEDINGDOUBIXUJINGGUOGONGMINJIHUITAOLUNHEDUOSHUPIAOTONGGUO, GONGMINJIHUIBIXUYOUBENSHEQU30%YISHANGDECHENGNIANRENCHUXI。CHAWEISIZHENGFUSHITUTONGGUOCHUANGJIANSHEQUWEIYUANHUIZHEIYIJICENGZUZHI, CUJINSHEQUJUMINJIJICANYUSHEJIZISHENLIYIHESHEQUFAZHANDEGONGGONGGONGCHENGHEQITAZHONGYAOSHIWU, CONGERZAIQUANGUOFANWEINEITUIXINGCANYUZHIMINZHU, LUOSHIRENMINDANGJIAZUOZHUDEQUANLI。

2.BOLIWEIYADE“GONGSHIMINZHU”

2006NIAN1YUE, BOLIWEIYAZUOYIZHENGDANG“ZHENGQUSHEHUIZHUYIYUNDONG”HOUXUANRENAIWO·MOLALAISIJIURENZONGTONGHOU, XUANBUYAOZAIBOLIWEIYARIBODIANJING“SHEQUNSHEHUIZHUYI”, JIBENYUANZEZHIYISHIJIANLIYI“GONGSHI”WEIJICHUDECANYUSHIMINZHU, JI“GONGSHIMINZHU”。GONGSHIMINZHUDEMUBIAOSHISHIBENGUOMINZHUGENGJUBAORONGXINGHECANYUXING, SHIXIANGEZHONGSHEHUIZUZHIJIANDEGONGSHI、HUXIANGZUNZHONGHERENTONG, XIAOCHUPINKUN、KUNANHEQISHI;FAZHANNENGJIANGZHENGFUHEYIQIESHEHUIBUMENLIANXIQILAIDE、JUYOUSHEHUIHEJINGJINEIHANDECANYUSHIMINZHU;GUANZHUZAIJIUFAZHANMOSHIXIABEIHUSHIHEBIANYUANHUADEPINKUNDIQUDEFAZHANJINCHENG。14

MOLALAISIZHENGFUWEIRIBODIANJING“GONGSHIMINZHU”ERCAIQULEYIXIEJUTICUOSHI。YISHIJIANLIDINGQIXIANGSHEHUIYUNDONGZUZHIZIXUNHECUOSHANGDEJIZHI, YIBIANJISHITINGQUGONGMINSHEHUIDEZHENGCEJIANYI, CUJINZHENGFUYUSHEHUIBUMENDEGOUTONGHELIANXI, TUIDONGGONGMINJIJICANYUZHENGZHI。QIZHONG, QUANGUOZHENGQUBIANGEXIEDIAOYUAN (National Coordinator for Change) SHIWEIBIANYUSHEHUIYUNDONGLINGXIUYUZHENGFUGAOJIGUANYUANGONGTONGTAOLUNZHENGFUZHENGCEDEZHONGYAOJIGOU。ERSHIJIANLIBIANYUMINZHONGCANYUDEGEZHONGJIHUIHEDAIBIAODAHUIJIZHI。MOLALAISIZHENGFUHAICAIQUBIANLIXUANMINDENGJIHEZENGJIANONGCUNDIQUTOUPIAOSHESHIDENGCUOSHITIGAOXUANJUCANYULV。

TIGAOTUZHUYINDIANRENDEZHENGZHIDIWEISHIMOLALAISIZHENGFURIBODIANJING“GONGSHIMINZHU”DEZHONGYAOCUOSHI。ZHANGQIYILAI, ZHANRENKOUJUEDADUOSHUDETUZHUYINDIANRENZAIGUOJIAZHENGZHISHENGHUOZHONGCHUYUBEIBIANYUANHUAZHUANGTAI。ZUOWEIGAIGUOLISHISHANGDIYIWEITONGGUOMINXUANSHANGTAIDEYINDIANRENZONGTONG, MOLALAISIJIANGTUZHUYINDIANRENRONGRUXINZHENGZHITIXIZUOWEIRIBODIANJING“SHEQUNSHEHUIZHUYI”HE“GONGSHIMINZHU”DEZHONGYAOZHENGZHIJICHU。TAZHICHU, ZHIZHENGDANGDEYUANZEHESUQIUZHIYISHISHIXIANTUZHUMINZUZIZHI, BAOZHANGQIJITIRENQUANHEZAIPINGDENGDETIAOJIANXIAXINGSHIGONGMINQUAN, JIANLI“GONGSHIMINZHU”。15WEICI, MOLALAISIZHENGFUSHOUXIANCONGXIANFAHEFALVSHANGTIGAOLEYINDIANRENDEDIWEI。XINXIANFAQIANGDIAOBOLIWEIYADEDUOMINZUGUOJIATEXING。XIANFADI1TIAOGUIDING:“DUOMINZUSHEQUN、ZIYOU、DULI、ZHUQUAN、MINZHU、KUAWENHUA、FENQUANHEZIZHISHIBOLIWEIYAGONGHEGUODEJIBENYUANZE。GONGHEGUOJIANLIZAIDUOYUANWENHUADEJICHUZHISHANG, BINGJIANGZHENGZHI、JINGJI、FALV、WENHUAHEYUYANDEDUOYANGXINGNARUGUOJIAYITIHUAJINCHENGZHIZHONG。”16MOLALAISIZHENGFUHAICAIQULEYIXILIEZENGQIANGTUZHUSHEQUZHENGZHIQUANYIHECUJINTUZHUJUMINCANYUGUOJIAZHENGZHISHENGHUODEJUTICUOSHI, RUGUIDINGYINDIANRENBIXUZAIYIHUIZHONGZHANYOUYIDINGMINGE, TIGAOTUZHUSHEQUNZAIYIHUIZHONGDECANYUQUAN;JIANLIDUOMINZUXIANFAFATINGHEDUOMINZUXUANJUJIGOU, DENGDENG。MOLALAISIZHENGFUHAIFUYUYINDIANRENZAIXINGZHENG、FALV、JINGJI、ZONGJIAOHEWENHUAFANGMIANGENGDUODEZIJUEQUAN, JIAQIANGLETUZHUSHEQUDUIBENSHEQUTUDI、ZIRANZIYUANHEDIFANGSIFAHEZHIZHENGJIGOUDEKONGZHI。

日博电竞3.EGUADUOERDECANYUZHIMINZHU

日博电竞ZAIEGUADUOER, KELEIYAZAI2006NIANZONGTONGJINGXUANZHONGCHENGNUOYAOCHEDIGAIBIANFUBAIHEGUANLIBUSHANDEXIANXINGZHENGZHIJINGJIZHIDU, ZHONGJIE“MANZHANGDE、BEICANDEXINZIYOUZHUYIZHIYE”, BINGTICHULEJINXING“GONGMINGEMING”DEXILIEZHUZHANG。“GONGMINGEMING”DEZHENGZHIMUBIAOSHIJINXING“XIANFAHEZHENGZHIGEMING”, GAIGEZHENGZHITIZHI, SHISHICANYUZHIMINZHU。KELEIYARENWEICANYUZHIMINZHUSHIZHENZHENGDEMINZHU, QISHIZHIJIUSHIYAORIBODIANJINGYIGERENMINYONGJIUCANYUGUOJIAGONGGONGSHENGHUODESHENKEDEMINZHUSHEHUI。17

日博电竞2007NIAN1YUE, KELEIYAZHENGSHIJIURENZONGTONGBINGTICHURIBODIANJING“MEIHAOSHENGHUOSHEHUIZHUYI”, GAIGEGUOJIATIZHIHEZHENGZHIJIEGOU, GAIBIANBUHELIDEQUANLIGUANXI, JIANG“WEISHAOSHURENRIBODIANJINGDEZICHANJIEJITONGZHIDEGUOJIA, GAIBIANCHENGWEIGONGGONGHEPUBIANLIYIRIBODIANJINGDEZHENZHENGRENMINDEGUOJIA”。182008NIANXINXIANFATONGGUOHOU, KELEIYAZHENGFUZAIYUANYOUDEXINGZHENG、LIFAHESIFASANGEQUANLIJIGUANZHIWAI, ZENGSHEGUOJIAXUANJUWEIYUANHUIHEGONGMINCANYUYUSHEHUIJIANDUWEIYUANHUI。GUOJIAXUANJUWEIYUANHUISHIWEILEBAOZHANGGONGMINXINGSHITOUPIAOQUAN, GONGMINCANYUYUSHEHUIJIANDUWEIYUANHUISHIWEILETIGAOGONGMINDEZHENGZHICANYUDUHEZHENGZHITOUMINGDU, SHIXIANGONGMINCANYUZHENGZHIDEZHIDUHUA, QIANGHUAGONGMINHUODEDUIJUECEDEYINGXIANGHEJIANDUNENGLI。GONGMINCANYUYUSHEHUIJIANDUWEIYUANHUIDECHENGYUANYOUSHEHUIGEJIEGONGMINZUZHITUIJIAN, JINGGUOXUANJUCHANSHENG, KERENMINGZONGJIANCHAZHANG、ZONGSHENJIZHANG、GUOJIAXUANJUWEIYUANHUIHESIFAWEIYUANHUIDENGBUMENDEZHONGYAOCHENGYUAN。

ZHIDEZHUYIDESHI, EGUADUOERKELEIYAZHENGFUZAIRIBODIANJINGCANYUZHIMINZHUFANGMIANDELIDUBUJIWEINEIRUILAHEBOLIWEIYADEJIJINZUOYIZHENGQUAN, ZHUYAOYUANYINZAIYUZHENGFUYUTUZHUYINDIANRENYUNDONGHEQITASHEHUIYUNDONGZHIJIAN, YINZIRANZIYUANKAICAIJIQITASHEJITUZHUJUMINLIYIDEZHENGCEFANGMIANCUNZAIYANZHONGCHONGTU, NANYIDUISHEHUIBUMENTICHUDEZHENGZHICANYUSUQIUZUOCHUGENGDUOSHIZHIXINGDEHUIYING。

(ER) WENHEZUOYISHENHUAMINZHUDENULI

YUJIJINZUOYIXIANGBI, LAMEIWENHEZUOYIDEZHIZHENGLINIANHEZHENGCEQUXIANGJIAOWEIWENHE, SUIRANYECAIQULECUJINMINZHONGCANYU、KUODAXUANJUJICHUDECUOSHI, QISHEJIFANWEIHESHENDUJUNBUJIJIJINZUOYIZHENGQUAN, YEMEIYOUDONGYAOHEGAIBIANDAIYIZHIMINZHUZHENGZHIDEJIBENFAZHANFANGXIANG。

ZAIBAXI, LAOGONGDANGZAI2003NIANZHIZHENGHOU, WEIKUODAMINZHONGCANYUZHENGZHIHEJINGJISHEHUISHIWUFANGMIANZUOCHULENULI。YISHIJIXUZAIDIFANGZHENGFUCENGMIANSHISHICANYUYUSUANZHIDU。CANYUYUSUANZHIDU, JIUSHITONGGUOGONGMINCANYUDIFANGZHENGFUYUSUANDEPEIZHIHESHISHI, CUJINGONGGONGZIJINXIANGJIAOPINKUNDIQUPEIZHI。GAIZHIDUZUOWEILAOGONGDANGSHENHUAMINZHUDEFANLIERHUODELEGUONEIWAIGUANGFANZANYU。DANKEXIDESHI, LAOGONGDANGZHIZHENGHOUCANYUYUSUANZHIDUBINGMEIYOUSHUNLIZAIQUANGUOFANWEINEITUIGUANG。ERSHIXINCHUANGLEYIXIECANYUJIZHI, RUJINGJISHEHUIFAZHANWEIYUANHUI、YUSUANXIESHANGZHIDU, DENGDENG。SANSHIZHAOJIXUDUOGONGZHONGTINGZHENGHUI (2004NIANDEQUANGUOZUIDIGONGZITINGZHENGHUI) 、“BIANLUNHUI” (LAODONG、JISHUHEJINGJIJINGZHENGLILUNTAN) , TINGQUMINZHONGDUIZHENGFUZHENGCEDEJIANYI。

SHANGSHUCANYUJIZHIDESHISHI, ZAIKUODAMINZHONGZHENGZHICANYUYISHI, ZENGQIANGMINZHONGDUIGONGGONGJIGOUDEJIANDU, TIGAODUIQIONGRENDEGUANZHUDU, CUJINGONGGONGZIYUANDEHELIPEIZHIHEZHENGCEDEGONGZHENGHELIYIJITIGAOZHENGFUZHIZHENGTOUMINGDUDENGFANGMIANFAHUILEYIDINGDEJIJIZUOYONG。DANSHI, YU20SHIJI80NIANDAICHUCHUANGSHIQIXIANGBI, LAOGONGDANGDEZHENGZHIJINGJIZHUZHANGJIANQUWENHE, YIJINGYANBIANCHENGYIGEFENGXINGZHENGZHIDUOYUANHUA、DUODANGZHIHEGAILIANGZHUYIDEWENHEZUOYIZHENGDANG, DANGYUSHEHUIYUNDONG、FEIZHENGFUZUZHIYIJIJICENGMINZHONGZHIJIANDELIANXIRIYIJIANSHAO。LAOGONGDANGZAICUJINMINZHUCANYUFANGMIANDEJIJIXINGHEYIYUANJIANRUO, MINZHONGCANYUZHENGZHIHEYINGXIANGGONGGONGZHENGCEDEQUDAOFEICHANGYOUXIAN。YIJINGJIHESHEHUIFAZHANWEIYUANHUIWEILI, ZUOWEICUJINCANYUZHIMINZHUDEZHONGYAOCHANGSHI, LULAZHENGFUZHAOJIZHENGFU、GONGSHANGQIYEHESHEHUIZUZHI、GERENDENGSANFANGDAIBIAO, TIYIBINGTAOLUNZHENGFUZHENGCE, ZHIZAICUJINZHENGFUYUSHEHUITUANTIDEDUIHUAHEXIESHANG。DANSHI, GAIWEIYUANHUICHENGYUANSHIYOUZONGTONGRENMINGBINGSHOUZONGTONGZHIYUE, DUIGUOJIADEJUECEGUOCHENGYINGXIANGWEIRUO。QITAYIXIECANYUJIZHIYEXINGTONGXUSHE, BUNENGFAHUISHIZHIXINGDEYINGXIANG。

ZAIWULAGUI, ZUOYIZHENGDANG“GUANGFANZHENXIAN—JINBULIANMENG”ZHIZHENGHOU, BUJINKUODALEMINZHONGDUIDIFANGZHENGFUDECANYUQUDAO, ERQIEJIANLILESANFANGZIXUNLUNTAN (YOUGONGSHANGYE、GONGHUIHEZHENGFUDEDAIBIAOGONGTONGTANTAOLAOGONGHEJINGJIWENTI) 、GONGZIWEIYUANHUIDENGXINDEGUOJIACENGMIANCANYUJIZHI。ZHEIDUIYUKUODAZUOYIZHIZHENGDANG、ZHENGFUYULAOGONGYUNDONGHEQITASHEHUIZUZHIDELIANXICHANSHENGLEJIJIZUOYONG。DANSHI, SHOUBENGUOZHENGDANGZHIDUHUACHENGDUYIJIZHIZHENGDANGRIYIWENHEHUADEYINGXIANG, WULAGUIZUOYIZHENGQUANZAICUJINMINZHONGCANYUHEJIANLITIDAIXINGMINZHUMOSHIFANGMIANBINGMEIYOUHUODEMINGXIANDEJINZHAN。

三、拉美左翼执政对民主政治发展的影响

LAMEIZUOYIZHIZHENGDUIMINZHUZHENGZHIDEFAZHANJIYOUJIJIYINGXIANGYEYOUXIAOJIHOUGUO。BULUNSHIWENHEZUOYIHAISHIJIJINZUOYIZHIZHENG, ZAICUJINMINZHONGCANYUHEKUODAMINZHUZHENGZHIBAORONGXINGFANGMIANDOUQIDAOLEJIJIDEZUOYONG。DANSHIWENHEZUOYIHEJIJINZUOYIZAIMINZHUGUANYIJIZHENGZHIBIANGEMUBIAO、FANGSHIDENGFANGMIANJUNCUNZAIJIAODACHAYI, DUIMINZHUWENZE、ZHENGZHIDUOYUANDENGDAIYIZHIMINZHUDEZHONGYAOYUANZESUOCHANSHENGDEYINGXIANGYEBUKETONGRIERYU。

(YI) LAMEIZUOYIZHIZHENGDUIMINZHUZHENGZHIFAZHANDEJIJIYINGXIANG

LAMEIZUOYISHANGTAIZHIZHENGHOU, BUJINJIDADIGAIBIANLEDIQUZHENGZHIGEJU, NIUZHUANLE20SHIJI90NIANDAIQIJIANZHUYAOYOUYOUYILONGDUANZHENGJUDETUJING, ERQIEGAIBIANLERENMENDUIZUOYIDEGUYOUPIANJIAN。ZHILIALIANDERENMINTUANJIEZHENGFUHEMILUDIYIJIEJIAXIYAZHENGFUDENGYIXIEZHENGFUZUOYIZHENGCEDESHIBAI, SHILAMEIZUOYIBEISHANGLEZHENGZHILUMANGHEZHENGCEWUNENGDEFUMING。RANER, CHAWEISI、LULA、MOLALAISI、BASIKESI、MUXIKADENGYIDAPIZUOYIZHENGZHIJIASHANGTAIZHIZHENGHOU, DUIBENGUOJINXINGLEYOUXIAODEMINZHUZHILI, BUJINXIANSHILEZUOYIZUOWEIQIANGYOULIZHENGZHIJINGZHENGZHEDESHILI, YESHIZUOYIZHILIWUNENGDEXINGXIANGCHEDIXIAOSHI。ZUOYIZHENGFUDUINEIWAIZHENGCEJINXINGDEXUDUOZHONGDADIAOZHENGHEGAIGE, DUIYUGAIBIANHEJIUZHENGXINZIYOUZHUYIJINGJIGAIGEZAISHEHUILINGYUZAOCHENGDEFUMIANYINGXIANGJIXIFANGDAIYIZHIMINZHUDEQUEXIAN、XUNQIUTIDAIXINGFAZHANMOSHI、CUJINLAMEIZHENGZHIMINZHUHUAXIANGSHIZHIXINGMINZHUFAZHANDOUZUOCHULEZHONGYAOGONGXIAN。

LAMEIZUOYIBUJINTONGGUOXUANJUSHANGTAIZHIZHENG, ERQIERENQIJIEMANZHIHOUTONGGUOZHENGCHANGDEMINZHUCHENGXUSHIXIANLEZHENGQUANGENGDIE, JIBENWEIHULEJINGZHENGXINGXUANJUZHIDUDEZHENGCHANGYUNZHUANHEMINZHUTIZHIDEGONGGU。ZUOYIZHIZHENGLANGCHAOCHIXUSHIDUONIANZHIHOU, LAMEIJIXUZAIMINZHUDAOLUSHANGQIANJIN。JISHISHICHAWEISI、KELEIYADENGMINCUIZHUYISECAINONGHOUDE“JUWAIREN”, YEBIXUTONGGUOCHUANGJIANZHENGDANG、CANJIAXUANJULAISHIXIANQIZHENGZHIBAOFU。SUIRANYIXIEGUOJIAZUOYIZHENGDANGSHANGTAIZHIZHENGYINQIYOUYIZHENGZHILILIANGQIANGLIEFANDANBINGDAOZHIZHENGJUDONGDANG, DANSHIJIHUSUOYOUDEZUOYIZHENGQUANCUNXUQIJIANDOUWEICHILEDINGQIDE、KAIFANGDEHEJINGZHENGXINGDEXUANJU, WEIHULEZHENGJUDEXIANGDUIWENDING。KELEIYAZHIZHENGZHIQIAN, EGUADUOERZHENGJUDONGDANG, ZHENGBIANPINFAN, SHINIANNEIHUANLEQIWEIZONGTONG。KELEIYAZHIZHENGHOU, EGUADUOERBUDANBAOCHIZHENGJUWENDING, ERQIECUJINLEJINGJIHESHEHUIDEFAZHANJINBU。MOLALAISIZHENGFUDEZHENGZHIJINGJIGAIGE, ZAIBOLIWEIYAKAIQILEYIGEJUYOUGUANGFANZHENGZHIGONGSHIDEXINSHIQI, SHIXIANLEGAIGUOLISHISHANGZUIZHANGSHIQIDEMINZHUWENDING。2015NIANYIHOU, LAMEIZHENGJUCHUXIAN“ZUOTUIYOUJIN”TAISHI, DANSHIZUOYOUZHENGQUANGENGDIEZAIMINZHUHEFADECHENGXUZHONGYOUXUJINXING, QIEMEIYOUYIGEZUOYIZHENGFUSHIBEICHAOYUEXIANFADEFANGSHITUIFANDE。2016NIANBAXIZUOYIZONGTONGLUOSAIFUBEIDANHEXIATAIYIJI2018NIANLULAYINBEIKONGFUBAIERBEIBURUYU, ZHENGGEGUOCHENGYESHIZAIZHENGCHANGDESIFACHENGXUZHONGYOUXUJINXING。ZONGDELAISHUO, LAMEIZUOYIZHENGZHIJIAJIBENZUNSHOUXUANJUMINZHUDEJINGZHENGYUANZE, LAMEIMINZHUZHENGZHIJINGSHOULEZUOYOUGENGDIEDEKAOYAN。

(ER) JIJINZUOYIZHENGFUDUIMINZHUZHENGZHIFAZHANDESHUANGZHONGYINGXIANG

JIJINZUOYIZHENGQUANWUYISHILAMEI21SHIJICHUZUOYIZHIZHENGLANGCHAOZHONGZUIJIJIN、YANSEZUISHENDEBUFEN, DUIMINZHUZHENGZHIFAZHANJIYOUBURONGHUSHIDEJIJIYIYI, YECHANSHENGLEYIXIEFUMIANYINGXIANG。

日博电竞1.JIJINZUOYISHENHUAMINZHUDENULIDUIYULAMEIDIQUMINZHUZHENGZHIFAZHANDEJIJIZUOYONG

SHOUXIAN, JIJINZUOYIZENGQIANGLEMINZHUTIZHIDEBAORONGXING。WEIGAIBIANCHUANTONGZHENGZHIFAZHANDEQUEXIAN、TIGAODAIYIZHIMINZHUZHENGZHIDEBAORONGXING, JIJINZUOYITICHUBINGSHIJIANLECANYUZHIMINZHU。ZAISHIJIANZHONG, TAMENBUJINNULIGAIBIANRUOSHIQUNTIZAIZHENGZHIJINGJIHESHEHUISHENGHUOZHONGBEIBIANYUANHUADEZHUANGTAI, SHIXIANSHEHUIJINGJIPINGDENG, ERQIEBAZUNZHONGCHAYIXING、FANDUIZHONGZUHEXINGBIEQISHINARUQIZHUYAOSUQIU。JINGGUONULI, CHUANTONGSHANGBEIPAICHIZAIZHENGZHITIZHIZHIWAIDEQUNTIDEZHENGZHICANYUDUHEZHENGZHIYINGXIANGLIYOULEXIANZHUTIGAO, YOUQISHITUZHUYINDIANREN、NONGMINHESHIYEGONGRENDENGLISHISHANGBEIPAICHIDE、SHOUQISHIDESHEHUIBUMENRONGRULEGUOJIAZHENGZHITIXI, CHENGWEIQIANGDADEZHENGZHILILIANG, ZENGQIANGLEZHENGZHITIZHIDEBAORONGXING。YINCI, YOUXUEZHERENWEI, “LAMEIZUOYIJUEQILANGCHAOSHIGUOQUBEIPAICHIDESHEHUIBUMENRONGRUMINZHUZHENGZHIGUOCHENGDEXINDEZHENGZHIHESHEHUILANGCHAO。”19

日博电竞ZAIBOLIWEIYA, YINDIANRENLINGXIUZAILISHISHANGSHOUCIHUODEDIFANGHEZHONGYANGZHENGFUDEDALIANGZHIWEI, ZHENGZHIYINGXIANGLIXIANZHUZENGQIANG。MOLALAISICHENGWEIGAIGUOLISHISHANGDIYIWEIYINDIANRENZONGTONG。CHAWEISIZHENGFUSHISHIDERENMINSHOUQUANLUXIANYIJIGEZHONGZHENGZHICANYUJIZHIHECUOSHI, SHIDEGENGDUOWEINEIRUILAMINZHONGRONGRUZHENGZHIJINCHENG, SHIJIUZHENGDANGZHIZHENGSHIQIWEIGANSHOUDAODAIBIAOXINGDESHEQUHEPINMINKUDOURONGRULEZHENGZHISHENGHUO, YEZENGQIANGLEFUNV、FEIYIWEINEIRUILARENHETUZHUJUMINDEZIXIN、JIAOAOHECHENGJIUGAN。YOUTOUPIAOQUANDEWEINEIRUILARENZHANZONGRENKOUDEBIZHONGCONG1998NIANDE79%TIGAODAO2010NIANDE92%;ZONGTONGXUANJUDETOUPIAOLVCONG1998NIANDE65.5%SHANGSHENGDAO2006NIANDE74.6%20;XUDUOPINMINDIYICICANJIALEXUANJU, TUZHUYINDIANRENDEQUANLIYEYOUJINYIBUTISHENG。

日博电竞QICI, JIJINZUOYIZAIYIDINGSHIQINEITIGAOLEMINZHONGDUIMINZHUDEMANYIDU。JIJINZUOYIZHIZHENGZHIQIAN, WEINEIRUILA、BOLIWEIYAHEEGUADUOERSANGUODAIYIZHIMINZHUZHIDUMIANLINWEIJI, MINZHONGDEBUMANQINGXUJIHUA, DAGUIMOKANGYIHUODONGCIQIBIFU, ZHENGJUDONGDANGBUAN。ZUOYIZHENGFUSHANGTAIHOUBUJINJIBENWENDINGLEZHENGJU, ERQIECAIQULEYIXILIETIGAODICENGMINZHONGFULIHEZHENGZHICANYUDESHEHUIJIHUAHEZHENGZHIBIANGECUOSHI, MINZHUZHICHIDUYOUSUOSHANGSHENG。LAMEIQINGYUJI (Latinobarometer) DEDIAOCHABAOGAOXIANSHI, CHAWEISIZHIZHENGQIJIAN, DUIBENGUOMINZHUGANDAOFEICHANGMANYIHUOMANYIDUYIBANDERENKOUBIZHONGCONG1996NIANDE30%SHANGSHENGZHI2007NIANDE59%。ZAIEGUADUOER, DUIBENGUOMINZHUGANDAOFEICHANGMANYIHUOMANYIDUYIBANDERENKOUSUOZHANBIZHONGCONG2005NIANDE14%ZENGZHI2008NIANDE37%。LAMEIGONGGONGMINYIJIHUA (Latin American Public Opinion Project) DESHUJUYEBIAOMING, BOLIWEIYAMINZHONGDUIMINZHUDEMANYIDUHUODELEJIAODAFUDUDETISHENG, CONG2004NIANDE58.5%TIGAOZHI2006NIANDE68.5%。21

2.JIJINZUOYIDUIMINZHUZHENGZHIFAZHANDEFUMIANYINGXIANG

日博电竞JIJINZUOYISHENHUAMINZHU、CUJINCANYUZHIMINZHUDENULISUIRANMEIYOUZAOCHENGXUANJUMINZHUZHIDEBENGKUI, DANZONGTONGGERENJIQUAN、SHENKEDEZHENGZHIGAIGEYIJIQIANGYINGDEZHIZHENGFENGGEDUIDAIYIZHIMINZHUZHENGZHIDEFAZHANCHANSHENGLEXUDUOFUMIANYINGXIANG。

日博电竞SHOUXIAN, ZONGTONGGERENJIQUANPOHUAILEJIANDUYUZHIHENGYUANZE。JIJINZUOYILINGXIUSHANGTAIZHIZHENGHOUBA“ZENGQIANGQUANLI”ZUOWEITUIJINJIJINGAIGEDEQIANTITIAOJIAN。TAMENRENWEIZHIYOUXUERUOHUOBODUOCHUANTONGZHENGDANGDUIYIHUI、SIFAHEQITAGUOJIAGUANLIAOJIGOUDEKONGZHIQUAN, CAINENGHUODEGENGDUODEXINGDONGZIYOU, SHUNLISHISHIGEXIANGZHENGCEYICHENG。22YINER, TAMENSHANGTAIHOUJIZHESHOUJIESANGUOHUI、XUANJUZHIXIANDAHUI、ZHONGXINZHIDINGXIANFA。TAMENHAITONGGUOXIUXIANHEQUANMINGONGTOULAIYANZHANGZONGTONGRENQI, SHENZHIQUXIAODUIZONGTONGWUXIANQILIANXUANLIANRENDEXIANZHI。ZAICUNZAIYOUXIAODEJIANDUYUZHIHENGJIZHIDETIAOJIANXIA, JISHIRENQIBEIYANZHANG, ZONGTONGQUANLIYIRANKESHOUDAOQITAGUOJIAJIGOUDEXIANZHI。DANZAIJIJINZUOYIZHIZHENGDEGUOJIA, ZONGTONGRENQIDEYANZHANGYIWEIZHEZONGTONGGERENJIQUANDEJIAQIANG。YIFANGMIAN, MINCUIZHUYISECAINONGHOUDEZONGTONGYILAIGERENMEILIHUOQUMINZHONGZHICHI, TONGGUODUOSHUPIAOJUEZHIHEDAGUIMOMINZHONGDONGYUANBUDUANDITUIJINGAIGE;LINGYIFANGMIAN, SIFAHELIFAJIGOUJINGGUOGAIGEZHIHOU, RIYIQUCONGYUXINGZHENGJIGOUDEQIANGDAQUANLI, JIANDUHEZHIHENGNENGLIDADAJIANRUO。

LIRUZAIWEINEIRUILA, CHAWEISISHANGTAIZHIZHENGZHIHOU, GAIGEGUOHUIHEXUANJUZHIDU, JIANGGUOHUILIANGYUANZHIGAIWEIYIYUANZHI, JIANG2/3XUANJUDUOSHUYUANZEGAIWEIJIANDANDUOSHUYUANZE。ZONGTONGBUJINTONGGUOZHIZHENGDANGKONGZHILEGUOHUI, HAITONGGUO《SHOUQUANFA》DUOCIHUODEWEIRENLIFAQUAN, YIXINGZHENGMINGLINGDAITIGUOHUILIFA, XINGZHENGJIGOUYULIFAJIGOUZHIJIANDEGUANXIYICHENGWEI“ZONGTONGZHANZHUDAO, GUOHUIWEIFUYONG”DEGUANXI, GUOHUIYICHENGWEIZONGTONGYIANDEXIANGPITUZHANG, ERBUSHIYIGEXIESHANGHESHENYIJIGOU。CHAWEISIZHENGFUHAIDUISIFAZHIDUJINXINGGAIGE, JIANGZUIGAOFAYUANFAGUANRENSHUYOU20MINGZENGJIADAO32MING, BINGRENMINGZIJIDEQINXIN, XUERUOLESIFAJIGOUDEDULIXING, CONGERQINSHILEDUIXINGZHENGQUANDEHENGXIANGWENZEXING。TONGGUOGAIGE, WEINEIRUILALIFAJIGOUHESIFAJIGOUDOUSHOUZHIYUXINGZHENGJIGOU, DAOZHICHAWEISIZONGTONGGERENQUANLISHIQULEBIYAODEJIANDUYUZHIHENG。ZAIEGUADUOER, KELEIYAZHENGFUCAIQULELEISIDEZHENGZHIZHANLVE。KELEIYAZAIDENGSHANGZONGTONGBAOZUOBUJIU, JIUGUANBILEYIHUI、ZHAOJIZHIXIANDAHUI, QICAOLEXINXIANFA, YUNXUZONGTONGLIANXUANLIANREN。TAYEKUODALEZONGTONGQUANLI, SHIZONGTONGKEYIJIESANGUOHUI, KONGZHIXIANFAJIANDUJIGOU, XIANZHIMEITIZIYOU, CONGERJIAJULEEGUADUOERDEZHENGZHIJIHUA, XUERUOLEHENGXIANGWENZEXING。

QICI, JIJINDEZHENGZHIBIANGEHEQIANGYINGDEZHIZHENGFENGGEPOHUAILEMINZHUZHENGZHIDEDUOYUANHUAYUANZE, JIAJULESHEHUIFENHUAHEZHENGZHIJIHUA。JIJINZUOYIYUYOUYIHEBAOSHOUPAIZHIJIANDEDUIKANGYUANYUSHUANGFANGZAIFAZHANMOSHISHANGDEFENQI。JIJINZUOYIDE“21SHIJISHEHUIZHUYI”YUBAOSHOUPAISUOJIANCHIDEXINZIYOUZHUYIHEDAIYIZHIMINZHU, ZAILILUNCENGMIANHEZHENGCECENGMIANDOUCUNZAIJIANRUIDEMAODUN。WEILEXUNSUSHENHUABIANGEJINCHENG, JIJINZUOYILIYONGZHANGQUANDEYOUSHI, XUERUOFANDUIDANGLILIANG, SAOCHUYIJI。CIWAI, QIJIJINDEZHENGZHIZHUZHANGHETUIJINGAIGEDESHOUDUANYEYINQIBAOSHOUPAIQIANGLIEDEDUIKANGHEFANDAN, DAOZHIGUONEIDESHEHUIZHENGZHIFENHUAJIAJU。JIJINZUOYIZHENGQUANHAICHANGCHANGLIYONGQUANMINGONGTOU、MINZHONGDONGYUAN、JIETOUKANGYISHIWEIDENGFANGSHI, SHIGAIGECUOSHIHEFAHUA;LIYONGGEZHONGGUANZHISHOUDUAN, ZHUQIFANGZHIFANDUIPAIPOHUAI“21SHIJISHEHUIZHUYI”DELIBAQIANG, CHENGFAPIPINGZHENGFUDEXINWENMEITI, SUOJIANFANDUIPAIDESHENGCUNHEFAZHANDEZHENGZHIKONGJIAN。TAMENDUIDAIYIJIANPAIHEFANDUIPAIDEBUTUOXIEHEDUIKANGTAIDU, YINQISHUANGFANGJILIEDEMAODUNCHONGTU, POHUAILEMINZHUZHENGZHIDEDUOYUANHUAYUANZE。

日博电竞(SAN) WENHEZUOYIZHIZHENGDUIMINZHUZHENGZHIFAZHANDEYINGXIANG

YUJIJINZUOYIXIANGBI, WENHEZUOYIZHENGFUDEGAIGEHEDIAOZHENGZHENGTISHANGJIAOWEIWENHE、JINSHEN, ZAIZHIZHENGGUOCHENGZHONGZUNZHONGXIANFAZHIXU, FUCONGMINZHUDEYOUXIGUIZE, BIMIANDUIZHENGZHITIZHIJINXINGJIJINGAIGE, WEIHULEDAIYIZHIMINZHUDEFAZHANFANGXIANG。ZHENGRUYOUDEXUEZHESUOZHICHUDENEIYANG, JIJINZUOYIDEBIANGEMOSHITONGCHANGMIANLIN“BUGUHEFADEPIPINGERSHISHIGOUXIANGZHUOLIEDEZHENGCECUOSHI”DEFENGXIAN, BUJINHUIJIAJUSHEHUIFENHUAHEZHENGZHIJIHUAQUSHI, ERQIEHUICHUXIANDUCAIZHUANZHIDEWEIXIAN。ERWENHEZUOYIQUEFAJIJINZHENGZHIGAIGEDEYEXIN, BUTAIREZHONGYUJINGJIHESHEHUIDEBIANGE, BUJINKEYIZUIDAXIANDUDIBIMIANJINGJISHEHUIZHENGCECUOWUHESHIBAIDEFENGXIAN, YEKEBIMIANDUIJIANDUYUZHIHENG、DUOYUANZHUYIHEMINZHUJINGZHENGXINGDENGZIYOUMINZHUYUANZEZAOCHENGSUNHAI。23

日博电竞WENHEZUOYIYEDUIDAIYIZHIMINZHUDEQUESHIJINXINGLEPIPAN, TICHULETIGAODAIBIAOJIGOUXIAOLVHEJINYIBUSHENHUAMINZHUDESUQIU, DANWENHEZUOYIZUNZHONGJIANDUYUZHIHENGDEYUANZE。LIRU, ZHILIDEZHONGZUOYIZHIZHENGLIANMENGZHENGFUTUIDONGTIZHIGAIGEDEZHUYAOMUDESHIWANSHANDAIYIZHIMINZHU, ERFEIBAQUANLIJIZHONGZAIZONGTONGHEQITAXINGZHENGJIGOUSHOUZHONG, SIFAHELIFABUMENDOUKEYIFAHUIZHENGCHANGZHINENG, SHENZHIZUOCHUYUZONGTONGYIYUANXIANGWEIBEIDEJUEDING。ZAIBAXI, GUOHUICHENGDANZHEZHENGCHANGDELIFAZHINENG, SIFAJIGOUYEYIRANBAOCHIDULI, ZONGTONGDEQUANLISHOUDAOGUOHUIHEZUIGAOFAYUANDEQIANGYOULIXIANZHI, LUOSAIFUYINZHIXINGLEWEIJINGGUOHUIPIZHUNDECAIZHENGYUSUANERBEIDANHEXIATAI, LULAYEYINBEIKONGFUBAIERWEINENGTAOTUOFALVZHICAI。

日博电竞WENHEZUOYIZHIZHENGQIJIAN, GUONEIZHENGZHIJIHUACHENGDUXIANGDUIJIAODI。WENHEZUOYIZHENGFUBUJINZAIZHENGCESHANGYUYOUYIHUOZHONGYOUYIQIANRENZHENGFUBAOCHILEJIAOQIANGDECHIXUXING, ERQIEYUNXUYIJIANPAIDECUNZAI, SHITUTONGGUOXIESHANGERFEIQIANGJIAYIZHIDEFANGSHIJIEJUEYUFANDUIPAIDEFENQIHEMAODUN, GUANCHEGAIGECUOSHI。GONGMINYANLUNZIYOUQUANDEDAOBAOZHENG, YEYOUZHONGDUOJINXINGGONGGONGBIANLUNDECHANGSUO, FANDUIPAIKEYIDUIZHENGFUTICHUPIPINGYIJIAN, KEYIZAISUOYOULINGYUBUSHOUXIANZHIDIYUZHENGFUJINXINGJINGZHENG。ZAIGUOHUIJIQITADAIYIZHIJIGOU, YIJIANXIANGBEIDEZHENGZHIZUZHIZHIJIANKEYIJINXINGXIESHANG、TANPANYUHEZUO, SHUANGFANGDOUJINLIANGLIYONGTIZHIDEYINGXIANGLILAISHUOFUDUIFANG, BAOZHENGZHENGCEDESHUNLIZHIDINGHESHISHI。

YUJIJINZUOYIXIANGBI, WENHEZUOYIZHENGFUSUIRANZHUZHANGTUIJINMINZHONGZHENGZHICANYU, SHIXIANMINZHUDESHENHUA, DANSHIZONGTISHANGJIANLICANYUZHIMINZHUBINGFEIWENHEZUOYIDEYOUXIANXUANXIANGHEGENBENSUQIU。YINER, ZAIKUODABEIBIANYUANHUARENKOUDEZHENGZHICANYUHEZHENGZHIYINGXIANGLIFANGMIAN, WENHEZUOYIZHENGFUDELIDUHEGUANGDUJUNBUJIJIJINZUOYI。BAXIDELAOGONGDANGSUIRANYONGYOUGENGQIANGDADEMINZHONGJICHU, DANSHITABINGMEIYOUBAMINZHONGDONGYUANJICHUNARUJUECEGUOCHENG, JINGJIHESHEHUIFAZHANWEIYUANHUIDENGCANYUZHIJIGOUYEBINGMEIYOUDUIJUECEGUOCHENGCHANSHENGSHIZHIXINGYINGXIANG, JUECEGUOCHENGYIRANZUNXUNXINGZHENGBUMENZHUDAOHELIFAJIGOUSHENYIHEPIZHUNDECHENGXU。CIWAI, BAXILAOGONGDANGSHOUCHANGBINGFUZHUSHIJIANDECANYUYUSUANZHIDU, ZAI2003NIANZHIZHENGHOUBINGMEIYOUZAIQUANGUOFANWEINEIDEDAODAFANWEITUIGUANG。

四、结论

日博电竞“DISANBOMINZHUHUA”YILAI, LAMEIZUOYICHENGWEIMINZHUZHENGZHIDEYONGHUZHEHESHIJIANZHE, YIJINGZHENGXINGXUANJUWEIJICHUDEDAIYIZHIMINZHUZHIDUSHIZUOYIZHENGFUHEFAXINGDEZHONGYAOLAIYUAN。20SHIJIMODIQUFANWEINEIDEZHENGZHIZUOZHUANDAIBIAOLELAMEIDIQUMINZHUZHENGZHIDEZHONGDAJINBU, FANGUOLAIDUILAMEIMINZHUZHENGZHIDEFAZHANCHANSHENGLEFUZAYINGXIANG, NANYIYONGJIANDANDEJINBUHUOTUIBULAIXINGRONG。ZONGDELAISHUO, ZUOYIZHIZHENGHOUDUIBENGUOJINXINGLEYOUXIAODEMINZHUZHILI, CUJINLEJINGJISHEHUIDEFAZHAN。ZAIZHENGQUANHEZHENGDANGGENGDIEZHONG, LAMEIZUOYIJIBENZUNSHOUXUANJUMINZHUDEJINGZHENGYUANZE, SHIMINZHUZHENGZHIJINGSHOULEZUOYOUGENGDIEDEKAOYAN。DANSHI, ZUOYINEIBUJIJINPAIHEWENHEPAIYOUBUTONGDEMINZHUGUAN, GEZISHISHIZHENGZHIBIANGEDEMUBIAOHESHENHUAMINZHUDEFANGSHIYEYOUXIANZHUBUTONG, DUIDAIYIZHIMINZHUDEYINGXIANGYEBUKETONGRIERYU。

JIJINZUOYIZHUZHANGRENMINZHUQUANHEMINZHONGFUQUAN, YITIGAOMINZHONGZHENGZHICANYU, WANSHANMINZHUZHENGZHIFAZHAN。JIJINZUOYIZHENGFUJIANGCANYUZHIMINZHUZUOWEIZHENGZHIMUBIAO, DADANTUIJINZHENGZHITIZHIGAIGE, CUJINCANYUZHIMINZHUDERIBODIANJING, ZAIYIDINGSHIQINEIDUIYUZENGQIANGMINZHUTIZHIDEBAORONGXINGHETIGAOMINZHONGDUIMINZHUDEXINXINFAHUILEJIJIZUOYONG。DANSHI, ZHENGRUYIDALIZHENGZHIXUEJIANUOBEIERTUO·BOBIAOSUOZHICHUDENEIYANG, “MINZHUSHOUDAOWEIXIEYIJIBUFENSHOUDAOXIANZHIZHUYAOSHIYINWEIYOUYIHEZUOYIDEJIDUANBANBEN”24。JIJINZUOYIZAITUIJINBIANGEJINCHENGZHONG, JIAQIANGGERENJIQUAN, SHIZONGTONGGERENQUANLIZHUJIANTUOLILEDAIYIJIGOUDEJIANDUHEZHIHENG, QIANGYINGDEZHIZHENGFENGGEJIAJULEGUOJIANEIBUDEZHENGZHIMAODUN, YANZHONGXUERUOLEMINZHUDUOYUANXING。YOUQISHIWEINEIRUILA, ZAICHAWEISIZHIZHENGQIJIAN, WEIRAOZHECHAWEISIJIQILINIANHEZHENGCE, ZHENGGESHEHUIRIYIFENLIEWEIRENTONGHEFANDUICHAWEISIDELIANGDAPAIBIE, ZAOCHENGSHEHUIYANZHONGFENLIEHEDONGLUAN。CIWAI, CANYUZHIANPAIYUDAIYIZHIJIGOUZHIJIANDEGUANXISHIZHONGMEIYOULISHUN。YOUQISHIZAIWEINEIRUILA, CANYUZHIMINZHUZUOWEIJIJINZUOYIZHENGQUANZHUIQIUDEXINXINGMINZHUMOSHI, QIDIWEIHEZHONGYAOXINGBUDUANBEIQIANGHUAHETISHENG, ERSHIJIANGUOCHENGZHONGQUEYUGEJIDAIYIZHIJIGOUHEGUOJIAGUANLIAOJIGOUZHIJIANCUNZAICUOZONGFUZADEDUILIHECHONGTU。YINCI, JIJINZUOYISHISHIDECANYUZHIMINZHUDUIDAIYIZHIMINZHUDEYUNXINGHEFAZHANGOUCHENGYANZHONGWEIXIE, MINZHUZHENGZHIDEWENDINGCHIXUFAZHANSHOUDAOPOHUAI, YINERSHOUDAOXUDUOXIFANGMEITI、ZHENGJIEHEXUEJIEDEGOUBING。

CIWAI, ZAIXIFANGMINZHUZHENGZHISHIYUNEI, JIJINZUOYIZHENGQUANBIXUJINGSHOUZHENGQUANGENGDIEHEYOUXIANZONGTONGRENQIDEKAOYAN, QIBIANGEYICHENGHENKENENGYINWEIXIAYIRENZHENGFUZHIZHENGLINIANHEMUBIAODEBIANHUAERBEIZHONGZHI。LAMEIZHENGZHIDE“ZUOTUIYOUJIN”TAISHIYIJINGDUIJIJINZUOYIDEBIANGEJINCHENGCHANSHENGLEYINGXIANG。2017NIANEGUADUOERZHIZHENGDANGHOUXUANRENLAINING·MOLEINUODANGXUANZONGTONG, QIZHENGZHIZHUZHANGHEZHENGCEJUNQUYUHUANHE, BUZAIGONGKAICHANGDAO“21SHIJISHEHUIZHUYI”HE“MEIHAOSHENGHUOSHEHUIZHUYI”, YUQIANZONGTONGKELEIYADEZHENGZHILINIANCHUXIANYANZHONGZHENGJIANFENQI, ZHIZHENGDANGXIANRUFENLIE。KELEIYACHANGDAODE“GONGMINGEMING”HE“21SHIJISHEHUIZHUYI”DEWEILAIQIANJINGKANYOU。MADULUOZHIZHENGHOU, WEINEIRUILALIANXUZAOYUZHENGZHIJINGJIWEIJIHESHEHUIDONGDANG, WEINEIRUILA“21SHIJISHEHUIZHUYI”DELILUNYUSHIJIANYEMIANLINKONGQIANWEIJI。JIJINZUOYIZHENGQUANDEZHENGZHIJINGJISUQIUJUNJIANGMIANLINYANJUNKAOYAN。

XIANGBIJIAOERYAN, WENHEZUOYISUIRANYEPIPANCHUANTONGZHENGZHIHEMINZHUCHIZI, DANQILINIANHESHIJIANDOUMEIYOUTUPODAIYIZHIMINZHUDEKEJIU。WENHEZUOYIZHUZHANGSHISHIWENHEDEDIAOZHENGHEGAIGE, YONGXIESHANG、DUIHUAHETUOXIELAICHULIYUFANDUIPAIDEMAODUN, DAIYIZHIJIGOUYIRANFAHUIZHEYINGYOUDEJIANDUYUZHIHENGZUOYONG, MINZHUZHENGZHIZAIDAIYIZHIMINZHUDEFAZHANGUIDAOSHANGWENBUQIANXING。“BIQIGENGYOUBAOFUQUEMEIYOUNAIXINDEJIJINZUOYI”, WENHEZUOYIZHENGQUANDEGAIGELUXIANBEIYIXIEXUEZHEYUWEI“GENGWEIYOUQIANTUDE、KECHIXUDELUXIAN”, “GENGYOUKENENGJINGSHOUSHIJIANHESHIJIANDEKAOYAN, YUNNIANGCHUGENGDADEJINGJIHESHEHUIJINBU”。25

日博电竞ZONGZHI, LAMEIZUOYIZHENDUIDAIYIZHIMINZHUDE“CHIZI”ERTICHUSHENHUAMINZHU, SHITUGOUJIANYIZHONGGENGWEIWANSHANDEMINZHUMOSHI。ZHIJINWEIZHI, GAIGESUIQUDELEYIXIEJIJICHENGJIU, DANSHIZAIWEINEIRUILADENGJIJINZUOYIZHIZHENGDEGUOJIA, GAIGEDEJIEGUOSHIBUDANMEIYOUQUELIYIZHONGTIDAIXINGDEMINZHUMOSHI, FANERPOHUAILEDAIYIZHIMINZHUDEJIYOUFAZHANGUIDAO, ZAOCHENGZHENGJUDEBUWENHEJINGJISHEHUIFAZHANDEYANZHONGKUNNAN。MUQIAN, LAMEIYOUYIKAISHIFUXING, GEGUOZHENGZHIGEJUHEGEZHENGZHIZUZHIDELILIANGDUIBIDOUJINRUZHONGYAODEDIAOZHENGQI, WEILAIMINZHUZHENGZHIFAZHANHEMINZHUMOSHIDEXUANZEBIRANSHOUCIYINGXIANG。BULUNSHIJIJINZUOYI、WENHEZUOYIHAISHIYOUYIZHIZHENG, DOUJIANGMIANLINJIEJUEPINKUN、BUPINGDENG、FUBAIDENGPOHUAIMINZHUZHENGZHIHESHEHUIJINGJIFAZHANDEYANZHONGWENTI, XUYAOZHELISHENHUAGONGMINQUAN, ZENGQIANGJIANDUYUZHIHENGJIZHI, CUJINSIFAZHIDUDEFAZHAN, ZUIZHONGJIANLIFUHEBENGUOGUOQING、SHUNYINGSHIDAIFAZHANHEMINZHONGSUQIUDEMINZHUMOSHI。

 

注释

  1 [美]约瑟夫·熊彼特著, 吴良健译:《资本主义、社会主义与民主》, 北京:商务印书馆, 2016年, 第396页。

  2 [美]塞缪尔·亨廷顿著, 刘军宁译:《第三波——20世纪后期民主化浪潮》, 上海:上海三联书店, 1998年, 第5-6页。

  3 [英]安德鲁·海伍德著, 吴勇译:《政治学核心概念》, 天津:天津人民出版社, 2008年, 第156页。

  4 Gerardo L.Munck, “Building Democracy…Which Democracy? Ideology and Models of Democracy in Post-Transition Latin America”, in Government and Opposition, Vol.50, No.3, 2015, p.365.

  5 关于激进左翼与温和左翼的区分, 参见方旭飞:《20世纪末以来拉美左派政府的政策差异及其原因分析》, 载《拉丁美洲研究》, 2011年第4期。本文主要涉及的激进左翼有委内瑞拉的查韦斯政府 (1999—2013年;2013年之后由马杜罗政府继承) 、玻利维亚的莫拉莱斯政府 (2006年至今) 、厄瓜多尔的科雷亚政府 (2007—2017年) 等;温和左翼主要有巴西的卢拉政府 (2003—2011年) 和罗塞夫政府 (2011—2015年) 、乌拉圭的塔瓦雷·巴斯克斯 (2005—2010年, 2015—2020年) 和穆希卡政府 (2010—2015年) 以及智利的巴切莱特政府 (2006—2010年, 2014—2018年) 等。

  6 Francisco Panizza, “Unarmed Utopia Revisited:The Resurgence of Left-of-Centre Politics in Latin America”, in Political Studies, Vol.53, 2005, p.721.

  7 Gerardo L.Munck, “Building Democracy…Which Democracy? Ideology and Models of Democracy in Post-Transition Latin America”, in Government and Opposition, Vol.50, No.3, 2015, p.373.

  8 Kirk A.Hawkins, “Who Mobilizes? Participatory Democracy in Chavez’s Bolivarian Revolution”, in Latin American Politics and Society, Vol.52, No.3, Fall 2010, p.32.

  9 Thomas Ponniah and Jonathan Eastwood (ed.) , The Revolution in Venezuela:Social and Political Change under Chavez, Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press, 2011, p.99.

  10 Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, PREáMBULO.http://www.cne.gob.ve/web/normativa_electoral/constitucion/preambulo.php.[2019-03-28]

  11 “Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela”, Artículo 62.http://www.cne.gob.ve/web/normativa_electoral/constitucion/titulo3.php#art62.[2018-12-01]

  12 “Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela”, Artículo 6.http://www.cne.gob.ve/web/normativa_electoral/constitucion/titulo1.php#art6.[2018-12-01]

  13 “Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela”, Artículo 70.http://www.cne.gob.ve/web/normativa_electoral/constitucion/titulo3.php#art70.[2018-12-01]

  14 袁东振:《拉美“21 世纪社会主义”的理论与实践特性——以玻利维亚为例》, 载《拉丁美洲研究》, 2016年第4期, 第6页。

  15 徐世澄著:《当代拉丁美洲的社会主义思潮与实践》, 北京:社会科学文献出版社, 2012年, 第60页。

  16 Nueva Constitución Política del Estado.http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constituci%C3%B3n_de_Bolivia#Principales_puntos.[2019-04-01]

  17 Steven Levitsky and Kenneth M.Roberts (eds.) , The Resurgence of the Latin American Left, Baltimore:The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011, p.275.

  18 Secretaría Nacional de Planificación y Desarrollo ( Senplades) , Plan Nacional para el Buen Vivir:2013-2017, Quito, Ecuador, 2013, p.24.

  19 Francisco Panizza, Contemporary Latin America:Development and Democracy Beyond the Washington Consensus, London/New York:Zed Books, 2009, p.222.

  20 Gregory Wilpert, “An Assessment of Venezuela’s Bolivarian Revolution at Twelve Years”.http://venezuelanalysis.com/analysis/5971.[2019-04-01]

  21 Kurt Weyland, Raúl L.Madrid, and Wendy Hunter (eds.) , Leftist Governments in Latin America:Successes and Shortcomings, New York:Cambridge University Press, 2010, p.150, p.169.

  22 Steven Levitsky and Kenneth M.Roberts (eds.) , The Resurgence of the Latin American Left, Baltimore:The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011, p.417.

  23 Kurt Weyland, Raúl L.Madrid, and Wendy Hunter (eds.) , Leftist Governments in Latin America:Successes and Shortcomings, New York:Cambridge University Press, 2010, p.152, p.179.

  24 Gerardo L.Munck, “Building Democracy…Which Democracy? Ideology and Models of Democracy in Post-Transition Latin America”, in Government and Opposition, Vol.50, No.3, 2015, p.383.

  25 Kurt Weyland, Raúl L.Madrid, and Wendy Hunter (eds.) , Leftist Governments in Latin America:Successes and Shortcomings, New York:Cambridge University Press, 2010, p.180.



  (作者单位:中国社会科学院拉丁美洲研究所政治研究室)

  来源:日博电竞-「官方网站」

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