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高波: 马克思主义对拉美本土发展理论的影响分析

作者: 高波  时间: 2020-05-29  来源:日博电竞-「官方网站」

内容提要:包括结构主义和依附理论在内的拉美本土发展理论从马克思主义理论传统中借鉴了诸多要素,国内理论界对此还缺乏系统的梳理。本文从主要概念、分析框架、分析方法、基本观点等角度对这一问题进行了初步探讨,认为结构主义和依附理论吸纳了马克思主义理论的剩余概念、先进国—落后国分析框架、阶级分析方法和政治经济综合分析方法,将其应用于拉美国家发展史的实证研究,提出了一系列新观点:在中心—外围关系方面,拉美本土发展理论认为外围国家难以成为中心国家的“翻版”,会长期处于欠发达状态; 结构主义指出,中心对外围发展起着推动与阻碍的双重作用,而依附理论更强调中心国家的负面影响;在资本主义危机问题上,结构主义对中心与外围的危机做出了区分,并提出了恶性通货膨胀和军事政变等外围资本主义危机的新形式。这些观点反驳了新古典经济学在相关问题上的片面看法,有助于深化对第三世界发展问题的认识。

关 键 词:结构主义/依附理论/马克思主义/发展理论

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一、主要概念和基本分析框架的影响

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YUJINGDIANZUOJIABUTONGDESHI,KADUOZUODEFENXIBUJINBAOKUOZICHANJIEJIHEWUCHANJIEJI,HAIGENJULAMEIGUOJIADESHIJINARULECHUANTONGGUATOUJITUAN、ZHONGCHANJIEJIHEZHONGXINGUOJIADEZICHANJIEJIDENGCHENGFEN。TARENWEI,ZAIDUIWAIKUOZHANGJIEDUAN(19SHIJIZHONGQIZHI20SHIJICHUQI),LAMEIGUOJIADETONGZHIJIEJISHIYOUXIANDAIJITUAN(JIZHONGYUCHUKOUJINGJIBUMEN)HECHUANTONGDAZHUANGYUANZHUGUATOUJITUANGONGTONGZUCHENGDE,ERZHEGONGTONGSHISHIDUITUDIDEZHANYOUQUANHEDUILAODONGLIDEKONGZHIQUAN,YIBAOCHICHUKOUJINGJIDEFANRONGHEZHENGZHIWENDING,DANTAMENNEIBUYECUNZAIMAODUN。JINRU20SHIJIHOU,SUIZHECHUKOUJINGJIDEKUOZHANGHECHENGSHIGONGSHANGYE、RIBODIANJINGYEDENGXINXINGBUMENDEZHUBUCHENGZHANG,LAMEIGUOJIACHUXIANLEGUIMOJIAOXIAODANBUDUANZHUANGDADEZHONGCHANJIEJI,QIZHONGBAOKUOMENGYAJIEDUANDEZICHANJIEJIJIXIANGGUANDEJISHURENYUAN、WENWUGUANYUAN、ZHISHIFENZIDENGQUNTI,ZHEIGEJIEJIYEKAISHIJINXINGZHENGZHICANYU。JINRUZHUANXINGJIEDUAN(20SHIJISANSISHINIANDAI)HOU,ZAIGUOJIJINGJIWEIJIDEDAJIXIA,CHUKOUJINGJIBUMENBEIXUERUO。BAXIDEKAFEICHUKOUJITUANDIWEIXIAJIANG,BEINANBUCHUMUYEJITUAN、DONGBEIBUTANGYEJITUANYUXINXINGGONGYEZICHANJIEJIDELIANMENGSUOQUDAI。DANZAIAGENTING,QIANGDADENONGMUYECHUKOUJITUANRENGZHANJUZHUDAODIWEI,DANYEYUNXUZHONGCHANJIEJICANYUQUANLIDEFENXIANG。GELUNBIYADEZHONGCHANJIEJIBIJIAOCUIRUO,JIXUQUCONGYUGUATOUDETONGZHI。ERZAIMOXIGE、BOLIWEIYAHEWEINEIRUILA,ZHONGCHANJIEJIZAIGUATOUTONGZHIDESHUAILUOZHONGKAISHICANYUQUANLITIXI。JINRUGUONEISHICHANGGONGGUJIEDUAN(20SHIJIWULIUSHINIANDAI)HOU,CHULEYUANYOUDEZHENGZHIJIAOSE,BUDUANKUODADELAOGONGJIECENG、CHENGSHIPINMINYIJINONGMINZUZHIYEJIARUQUANLIZHENGDUOZHAN,CUCHENGFAZHANZHUYIYUMINCUIZHUYIDELIANHE,YEZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGCUJINLESHOURUZAIFENPEI、GUONEISHICHANGKUODAHEJINKOUTIDAIGONGYEHUA。DANJINKOUTIDAIGONGYEHUADESHIBAIXUERUOLEZHEIGELIANMENG,ZAIXINDEJIEDUAN,KUAGUOGONGSIDAJUJINRULAMEIGUOJIA,DUIYIYOUDEJINGJIJIEGOUJINXINGSHENDUGAIZAO,YOUCIZAOCHENGZHIZAOYETIXIZHONGSHEHUIJIECENG、JITUANDEXINFENHUA。LAMEIGUOJIANEIBUXINGCHENGLEYIGEGENGXIANDAIDEWUCHANJIEJI,JIUYEYUGAOSHENGCHANLVHEGAOJISHUQIYE,YUZHIBINGCUNDESHICHANSHENGYUJINKOUTIDAIJIEDUANDECHUANTONGGONGYEBUMENHECHUANTONGWUCHANJIEJI。SUIRANTONGSHUYIGEJIEJI,DANTAMENDEZHENGZHIQUXIANGQUEYOUZHONGDACHABIE。ZAIKADUOZUOKANLAI,BUTONGSHEHUIJIEJI、JITUANZHIJIANFENXIANGQUANLIDEFANGSHIDUILAMEIDEFAZHANDAOLUCHANSHENGLEZHONGDAYINGXIANG。

YIPULEIWEISHENWEIDAIBIAODEJIEGOUZHUYILILUNJIAYUANBENJUXIANYUCHUNJINGJIFENXI,DANJINKOUTIDAIGONGYEHUADESHIBAIHEBAXI、AGENTINGDEJUNSHIZHENGBIANRANGTAMENKAISHIFANSIZISHENDELILUNQUEXIAN。“WEILERIBODIANJINGXINDE(LILUN)TIXI,YOUBIYAORANGSHIYECHAOYUECHUNJINGJILILUN。BUNENGBAJINGJIYINSUYUSHEHUIJIEGOUFENGEKAILAI,SHECIBIANBUNENGZHENGQUEHUIDANEIXIE(YOUGUANFAZHANDE)WENTI。”SONGKEERYEDUIZHENGZHI、JINGJIDEXIANGHUYINGXIANGZUOLEJUTIMIAOSHU:“QUANLIJITUANZHIJIEHUOTONGGUOZHENGZHITIXI、ZHENGFUDUIJINGJISHIJIAYINGXIANG,BAOKUOZIYUANPEIZHI、XIAOFEIMOSHI、JIAGEYUGONGZIDEQUEDING、XINDAIFENPEI、CAIZHENGZHENGCE、JISHUKUOSAN、SHENGCHANZILIAOSUOYOUQUANDEJIZHONGDENG。ZAIYIBANQINGKUANGXIA,YOUQIYEYUXIAOFEIZHE、DIQULIYIYUXINGYELIYI、WAIGUOJITUANYUGUONEIJITUAN、QIYEZHUYUGUYONGLAODONGZHEDENGZUCHENGDEBUTONGJITUANHUIJIUSHICHANGFENE、GONGGONGKAIZHI、SHUISHOU、WAIHUIDENGWENTIJINXINGXIESHANGBINGJUEDINGRUHEFENPEI。ZAIQUANLIFENPEISHIHENGDEQINGKUANGXIA,ZHUDAOXINGDEJITUANJIUHUIBATADEJUEDINGQIANGJIAJIQITAJITUAN。”

KEYISHUO,JIEJIFENXIFANGFAHEZHENGZHIJINGJIZONGHEFENXIFANGFAWEIJIEGOUZHUYIHEYIFULILUNTIGONGLEQIANGDADEFENXIGONGJU,SHITAMENZHUAZHULEFAZHANWENTIDEYIGEZHONGYAOCEMIAN,TONGSHIYEJUBEILEYIGESHENRUGUANCHASHEHUIXIANSHIDESHIJIAO。YIFULUNXUEZHEYUNYONGZHEILIANGZHONGFENXIFANGFADUILAMEILISHIHEXIANSHIJINXINGLEQUANXINYANJIU,DECHULEZIJIDEJIELUN,ZHEIYESHUOMINGLEMAKESIZHUYIDEYANJIUFANGFADUILAMEIBENTUFAZHANLILUNDEZHONGYAOYINGXIANG。

二、中心—外围关系问题

日博电竞GUANYUXIANJINGUOJIADUILUOHOUGUOJIADEYINGXIANGWENTI,LAMEIBENTUFAZHANLILUNTICHULEYUMAKESIZHUYIJINGDIANZUOJIABUTONGDEGUANDIAN,ERQIETAMENNEIBUYECUNZAIZHONGDAFENQI。

MAKESIZHUYIJINGDIANZUOJIAQIANGDIAOZIBENZHUYIZONGZHUGUODEKUOZHANGXING,DUIXIANJINGUOJIAYULUOHOUGUOJIAZHIJIANDEGUANXIZUOLECHUBULUNSHU。MAKESICHANSHULEZONGZHUGUODUIZHIMINDIDESHUANGZHONGZUOYONG:“TA(ZICHANJIEJI)POSHIYIQIEMINZU——RUGUOTAMENBUXIANGMIEWANGDEHUA——CAIYONGZICHANJIEJIDESHENGCHANFANGSHI;TAPOSHITAMENZAIZIJINEILITUIXINGSUOWEIWENMING,JIBIANCHENGZICHANZHE。YIJUHUA,TAANZHAOZIJIDEMIANMAOWEIZIJICHUANGZAOCHUYIGESHIJIE。”“YINGGUOZAIYINDUYAOWANCHENGSHUANGZHONGDESHIMING:YIGESHIPOHUAIXINGDESHIMING,JIXIAOMIEJIUDEYAZHOUSHIDESHEHUI;LINGYIGESHIMING,JIZAIYAZHOUWEIXIFANGSHIDESHEHUIDIANDINGWUZHIJICHU。”KEYIKANCHU,MAKESIRENWEI,XIANJINGUOJIASHENGCHANXIAOLVDETIGAOHUIDAFUDUJIANGDICHANPINJIAGE,YINERNENGGOUZHANLINGLUOHOUGUOJIADESHICHANG,POSHIZHEIXIEGUOJIADESHENGCHANZHEPAOQICHUANTONGSHENGCHANFANGSHI,CAINAXIFANGGUOJIAXIANJINDESHENGCHANJISHUHEZUZHIXINGSHI,ZUIHOUSHIXIANWANQUANDEXIFANGHUA,CHENGWEISHIJIEJINGJITIXIDEYIBUFEN。JIANYANZHI,ZHEISHIYIGEXIANJINGUOJIAFAZHANMOSHIKUOSANYUQUANQIUTONGZHIHUADEGUOCHENG,ERQIEXIANJINGUOJIACHUYUZHUDAODIWEI,DUILUOHOUGUOJIADEFAZHANQIZHEJUEDINGXINGZUOYONG。

JIEGOUZHUYIDUICICHIYOUBUTONGJIANJIE。MAKESIQIANGDIAOZONGZHUGUOSHANGPINDEDILIANJIAGECHANSHENGDEYINGXIANG,DANJIEGOUZHUYIFAXIANLEXINDEYINGXIANGJIZHI。PULEIWEISHENYULINGYIWEIJINGJIXUEJIAXINGEJIHUTONGSHITICHULEWAIWEIGUOJIAMAOYITIAOJIANEHUADELILUN,BEICHENGWEI“PULEIWEISHEN—XINGEMINGTI”。PULEIWEISHENDUILAMEIGUOJIA19SHIJI70NIANDAIZHI20 SHIJIZHONGQIDEGUOJIMAOYISHUJUJINXINGFENXIHOUZHICHU:ZAIZHEIYISHIQINEI,ZHONGXINGUOJIADUIWAIWEIGUOJIADEGONGYEZHICHENGPINCHUKOUJIAGEBINGMEIYOUYINWEISHENGCHANLVDETIGAOERJIANGDI; TONGSHI,YOUYUWAIWEIGUOJIACHUKOUDECHUJICHANPINJIAGESHUIPINGZHANGQICHENGXIAJIANGQUSHI,SUOYIERZHEZHIJIANDEMAOYIBIJIABULIYUWAIWEIGUOJIA,YOUCIZAOCHENGDEJIEGUOSHIWAIWEIGUOJIADUIZHONGXINGUOJIAMAOYITIAOJIANDEZHANGQIEHUA。WEISHENMEHUICHUXIANZHEIZHONGBUHELUOJIDEXIANXIANG?PULEIWEISHENRENWEI,ZHONGXINGUOJIADELAOGONGZUZHICHENGDUGENGGAO,NENGBAOZHENGQIGONGZISHUIPINGBUDUANTIGAO,YINERZHICHENGPINDEJIAGEBUHUIXIAJIANG。DANWAIWEIGUOJIADELAODONGLITEBIESHINONGYEGONGRENDEZUZHISHUIPINGHENDI,QIGONGZISHUIPINGBEIRENWEIYADI,CONGERDAOZHILECHUJICHANPINCHUKOUJIAGEDETINGZHISHENZHIXIADIE。XINGETICHULEBUTONGDEJIESHI:CHUJICHANPINYUGONGYEZHICHENGPINXIANGBI,QISHOURUDEXUQIUDANXINGGENGDI。YEJIUSHISHUO,SUIZHESHOURUDETIGAO,DUIZHICHENGPINDEXUQIUZENGZHANGGENGKUAI。ZHEIYISUDUSHENZHICHAOGUOLEZHICHENGPINSHENGCHANLVTIGAODESUDU,TAZAOCHENGLEZHICHENGPINJIAGEDEJUGAOBUXIA。PULEIWEISHENHELAMEIJINGWEIHUIDEQITAJINGJIXUEJIAHOULAIYEJIESHOULEXINGEDEGUANDIAN。JINGUANMAOYITIAOJIANEHUALUNZHIJINRENGWUDINGLUN,DANJIEGOUZHUYIXUEPAIDUIJIAGEJIZHIDEKAOCHAWUYISHENHUALEDUIZHEIYIWENTIDERENSHI,DUIMAKESIZHUYILILUNDEFAZHANYESHIYOUYIDEBUCHONG。

CONGMAOYITIAOJIANEHUALUNCHUFA,JIEGOUZHUYIHEYIFULILUNJINERDUIZHONGXIN—WAIWEIGUANXITICHULEYIXILIEXINGUANDIAN。PULEIWEISHENYETICHULEYIGEJUYOULIANGZHONGXINGDEGUANDIAN,DANQINEIHANYUMAKESIDESHUANGZHONGZUOYONGLUNBUJINXIANGTONG。ZAITAKANLAI,YIFANGMIAN,LAIZIZHONGXINGUOJIADEJISHUCHUANGXINHEZIBENSHUCHUKEYIWEIWAIWEIGUOJIATIGONGFAZHANDONGLI。LINGYIFANGMIAN,ZHONGXINGUOJIAHUIJIWAIWEIGUOJIAZAOCHENGDUOZHONGBULIYINGXIANG:YOUYUMAOYITIAOJIANDEGUANXI,ZHONGXINGUOJIAHUICONGWAIWEIGUOJIATIQUGUODUOSHENGYU,YINGXIANGWAIWEIDEZIBENJILEI; WAIWEIGUOJIADESHEHUISHANGCENGJITUANHUIMOFANGZHONGXINGUOJIADEXIAOFEIFANGSHI,SHIDEWAIWEIGONGYEHUA“ZAOSHU”,TIQIANJINXINGCHANPINDUOYANGHUASHENGCHAN,LANGFEILEZIBEN,BINGYOUYUCAINALEBUSHIDANGDEXIANJINJISHUERZENGJIALESHIYE。YINCI,“ZIBENZHUYIZAIQUANQIUFANWEINEIZIFAKUOSANDESHENHUAZHENGZAIXIAOSHI。FADAZIBENZHUYIJIBENSHANGSHIXIANGXINXINGDE、XISHOUXINGDEHETONGZHIXINGDE。TADEKUOZHANSHIWEILELIYONGWAIWEI,ERBUSHIWEILEFAZHANWAIWEI。”“(ZHONGXINDE)DONGLIJINGUANSHIHENZHONGYAODE,DANBUZUYISHIDEWAIWEINENGTUIDONGZISHENDEFAZHAN,WAIWEIZAISHIDANGDESHIHOUYINGDANGCHUANGZAOZISHENDEDONGLI,DAPOGUOQUDEGEJU。”(19)YEJISHISHUO,ZHONGXINDUIWAIWEIDEJIJIYINGXIANGYUXIAOJIYINGXIANGBINGCUN,NANYISHIXIANDUIWAIWEIDETONGHUA。WAIWEIGUOJIAZHINENGTONGGUOGONGYEHUAHEYITIHUAJIANQINGLAIZIZHONGXINGUOJIADEBULIYINGXIANG,YIDEDAOGENGDADEFAZHANKONGJIAN。

日博电竞ERFUERTADUODENGYIXIEYIFULUNZHEZEGENGJINYIBU,TICHU“QIANFADASHIYOUFADAZAOCHENGDE,TAMENSHIYIGEYINGBIDELIANGMIAN”。“QIANFADA”SHIFULANKETICHUDEGAINIAN,ZHIWAIWEIDIQUZAIZHONGXINDEBOXUEXIASUOJINGLIDEFAZHANBUCHONGFEN、YIFU、TINGZHI、BEIDONGDEZHUANGTAI,RUGUOBUDAPOZHEIZHONGYIFUGUANXI,QIANFADAGUOJIAJIUBUKENENGSHIXIANFAZHANBINGBAITUOZHEIZHONG“ZHONGJIAN”ZHUANGTAI。YUZHIXIANGBI,“BUFADA”ZHIDESHINEIXIEMEIYOUYUZHONGXINGUOJIAFASHENGJINGJI、MAOYILIANXIDEDIQUSUOJINGLIDEQIANZIBENZHUYIZHUANGTAI。YIFULUNZHEYEFANDUISHIYONG“FAZHANZHONGGUOJIA”GAINIAN,YINWEIZHEIYIWEIZHEWAIWEIGUOJIAZHENGCHUYUFAZHANJINCHENGDANGZHONG,RENGYOUFAZHANDEXIWANG。DUOSISANGTUOSIXITONGLUNSHULEZHONGXINZUAIWAIWEIFAZHANDESIZHONGJUTIJIZHI:DIYIZHONGSHIJIAGEJIZHI,DANBUDUIDENGDEJIAGESHUIPINGBINGFEILAIZIXUQIUDANXINGDECHAYI,ERSHIDIGUOZHUYIZHONGXINDELONGDUANDAOZHILEJIAGEDEBUDUICHENG; DIERZHONGSHIRIBODIANJINGFEIYONG,JIYIFUGUOXIANGZHONGXINGUOZHIFUDEYUNSHUFEIYONG、BAOXIANFEI、JISHURIBODIANJINGFEIHEZHUANLIFEIDENG; DISANZHONGSHIZIBENSHUCHU,DIGUOZHUYIZHONGXINTONGGUOKUAGUOGONGSILAIZHIJIELIYONGWAIWEIGUOJIADELIANJIALAODONGLI、ZIJINHEJICHUSHESHI,YOULIYUTAMENJIANGDISHENGCHANCHENGBENBINGZHANLINGWAIWEIGUOJIADENEIBUSHICHANG,BINGQIEJIANGGAOELIRUNHUIHUIZHONGXIN; DISIZHONGSHIWAIZHAIHEGUOJIYUANZHU,WAIWEIGUOJIASHOUDAOZHONGXINGUOJIADEGUODUZHAQU,DAOZHILEGUONEIZIJINDEDUANQUE,ZHONGXINGUOJIAYIZHAIWUHEYUANZHUDEXINGSHIWEITAMENBUCHONGZIJIN,BAOCHIWAIWEIJINGJIDEZHENGCHANGYUNZHUAN,BINGCONGZHONGDEDAOJINYIBUDESHOUYI。YINCI,DIGUOZHUYIZHONGXINDEBOXUEXINGWEIZAOCHENGLEBUKEYUYUEDEFAZHANZHANGAI,SHIWAIWEIGUOJIAZHANGQICHUYUQIANFADAZHUANGTAIERNANYIBAITUO。DUOSISANGTUOSIRENWEI,DIGUOZHUYIZHONGXINDEYINGXIANGSHIJUEDINGXINGDE,WAIWEIGUOJIADEJINGJI、ZHENGZHIDOUCHUYUZHONGXINDEKONGZHIZHIXIA,ZHONGXINDEFANRONGJIANLIZAIWAIWEIDELUOHOUZHISHANG,WEIYOUDAPOYIFUGUANXICAIYOUFAZHANDEKENENG。

日博电竞KADUOZUOBINGBURENTONGZHONGXINGUOJIADEJUEDINGXINGZUOYONG。TARENWEI,JINGUANZAIZHONGXINGUOJIADEZHUDAOXIAQUELILEYUWAIWEIGUOJIADEJIEGOUXINGLIANXI,DANYIFUGUODEGEZHONGJITUAN、JIEJI、ZUZHIHESHEHUIYUNDONGJUEDINGLESHIYANXU、GAIBIANHAISHIZHONGDUANZHEIXIEJIEGOUXINGLIANXI。GAIGUANDIANZENGQIANGLEYIFULUNDEJIESHINENGLI,DONGYAJINGJITIZAI20SHIJIZHONGHOUQIDEKUAISUFAZHANYEZHENGMINGLEQIZHENGQUEXING。

三、资本主义危机问题

日博电竞ZAIMAKESIZHUYIJINGJILILUNZHONG,ZIBENZHUYIJINGJIWEIJILILUNSHIQIZHONGDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN。JIEGOUZHUYIHEYIFULILUNYEJIEHELAMEIXIANSHIDUIWEIJIWENTIZUOCHULESHENRUTANTAO。

日博电竞MAKESIZHUYIJINGDIANZUOJIADUIZIBENZHUYIWEIJIDEJINGJIGENYUANZUOLESHENKECHANSHI。MAKESIZHICHU,ZAIZIBENJILEIGUOCHENGZHONG,BANSUIZHEJISHUJINBUHELAODONGSHENGCHANLVTIGAO,ZIBENJIAZHIGOUCHENGDEBILIYESUIZHIFASHENGBIANHUA,JIBUBIANZIBEN(GOUMAIJIQIDEBUFEN)DEBILITIGAOGENGKUAI,ERKEBIANZIBEN(GONGRENGONGZI)DEBILITIGAOJIAOMAN。YINCI,ZONGZIBENGOUCHENGZHONGKEBIANZIBENDEBILIZHUBUJIANGDI。LIRU,18SHIJICHUDEFANGSHAYEZHONGBUBIANZIBENYUKEBIANZIBENGEZHANYIBAN。DAO19SHIJIZHONGQI,KEBIANZIBENYIJIANGZHIZONGZIBENDE1/8。YINCI,LAODONGSHENGCHANLVZENGZHANGDESUDUDADACHAOGUOGONGRENGONGZIZENGZHANGDESUDU,ZHEIJIUHUIZAOCHENGSHENGCHANXIANGDUIGUOSHENGDEWEIJI。(22)LIENINGFENXILEDIGUOZHUYIDEJISHENGXING、FUXIUXINGYIJIGEDIGUOZHUYIGUOJIAFAZHANDEBUPINGHENGXING,BINGRENWEIGEDIGUOZHUYIGUOJIAZHIJIANDUIZHIMINDIDEZHENGDUOBIRANDAOZHIZHANZHENG,“ZAIZHANZHENGZAOCHENGDEQUANSHIJIEDEJINGJIPOHUAIDEJICHUSHANG,SHIJIEGEMINGWEIJIRIYIFAZHAN,ZHEIGEWEIJIBUGUANHUIJINGGUODUOMEZHANGJIUERJIANKUDEZHOUZHE,ZUIHOUBIJIANGYIWUCHANJIEJIGEMINGHEZHEIYIGEMINGDESHENGLIERGAOZHONG。”

JIEGOUZHUYIZEWEIRAOSHENGYUFENPEIWENTITICHULEZIJIDEWEIJILILUN。PULEIWEISHENDEWEIJILILUNFENWEIZHONGXINGUOJIAWEIJIHEWAIWEIGUOJIAWEIJILIANGBUFEN。ZAIZHONGXINGUOJIA,WEIJIZHUYAOLAIYUANYUSHENGCHANLVXIAJIANGHEGUOJIAKAIZHISHANGSHENGLIANGZHONGQUSHI。SHENGCHANLVXIAJIANGYUANYUCHANPINDEDUOYANGHUA,DUOYANGHUADECHANPINHERIBODIANJINGSUIRANMANZULESHEHUIXUYAO,DANJIANGDILESHENGCHANLVTIGAODESUDU,YINERJIANSHAOLESHENGYU。ZHEIYIWEIZHEZIBENJILEIDEXIAJIANGHEZENGZHANGDONGLIDEBUZU,QIYEHUITIGAOJIAGEYIHUIFUSHENGYUZENGZHANG,LAOGONGZETONGGUOGONGHUIZUZHILAITIGAOGONGZISHUIPING,ZHEICHENGWEITONGHUOPENGZHANGSHANGSHENGDEGENYUANZHIYI。LINGWAI,ZHENGFUKAIZHISHUIPINGBUDUANTIGAO,DANYOUYUZHENGZHIYUANYIN,SHUISHOUSHUIPINGQUEBUNENGXIANGYINGTIGAO,ZHENGFUZHINENGQIUZHUYUHUOBIKUOZHANGZHENGCE,ZHEISHITONGHUOPENGZHANGSHANGSHENGDELINGYIGEGENYUAN。ZAISHUANGZHONGYALIZHIXIA,ZHONGXINGUOJIAHUICHUXIANTONGHUOPENGZHANGSHANGSHENGHEZENGZHANGTINGZHIBINGCUNDEJUMIAN,ZHENGZHIDOUZHENGYEHUIYINCIERJIAJU。ZAIWAIWEIGUOJIA,WEIJIHEDOUZHENGHUIGENGJIAJULIE,ZHEISHIYOUWAIWEIZIBENZHUYIDETEXINGSUOJUEDINGDE。WAIWEIGUOJIANEIBUZHENGDUOSHENGYUDEJILIECHENGDUHUICHAOGUOZHONGXINGUOJIA,ZHEISHIYINWEIWAIWEISHEHUISHANGCENGJITUANPINGJIEQISUOYOUQUANZHANJULEDABUFENSHENGYU,BINGQIEJIANGQILANGFEIYUDUOYANGHUADE、SHECHIXINGDEXIAOFEI。GUOJIAJIGOUDEPENGZHANGYEXIAOHAOLEBUFENSHENGYU,YINWEIGUOJIAYAOXISHOUBUFENGUOSHENGLAODONGLI,JIANQINGSHIYEYALI。CHUCIZHIWAI,ZHONGXINGUOJIACONGWAIWEIZHAQULEDALIANGSHENGYU,JIANSHAOLEWAIWEIKEYIZAIGUONEIFENPEIDESHENGYUSHULIANG。YINCI,DANGLAOGONGHECHENGSHIPINMINDEGONGHUIQUANLI、ZHENGZHIQUANLISHANGSHENGSHI,WEIRAOSHENGYUDEZHENGDUOJIUHUIJIAJU,GONGZIYUJIAGEJIAOTISHANGSHENG,DAOZHIEXINGTONGHUOPENGZHANGHEJINGJIZHIXUDEBENGKUI。SHANGCENGJITUANHUIYIBAOLIYAZHISHEHUIXIACENGDEFENPEIYAOQIU,QIANGXINGHUIFUSHENGYUDEJILEIHEJINGJIZENGZHANG。RUHEJIEJUEZHEIZHONGZHOUQIXINGBAOFADEWEIJI?PULEIWEISHENTICHULEYIZHONGJIEYUZIBENZHUYIHESHEHUIZHUYIZHIJIANDEZHONGJIANDAOLU。SHOUXIAN,ZAIGAIZAOBUPINGDENGDEGUOJIJINGJIGUANXIFANGMIAN,WAIWEIGUOJIAYAOJIAQIANGTUANJIE。YIFANGMIAN,WAIWEIGUOJIADEJINGJIYITIHUAKEYIKUODASHICHANG,YOULIYUGENGGAOCENGCIGONGYEHUADETUIJIN。LINGYIFANG,WAIWEIGUOJIAKEYILIANHEQILAIFANDUIZHONGXINGUOJIADEMAOYIBAOHUZHUYIZHENGCE,POSHIQIZUOCHURANGBU。QICI,WAIWEIGUOJIANEIBUYEXUYAOJINXINGGAIZAO。GAIZAODEHEXINBUSHISHOURUZAIFENPEI,ERSHIZHUBUJIANGDISUOYOUQUANDEJIZHONGCHENGDU,BAQIYEDESIRENSUOYOUZHUANBIANWEIYIDINGFANWEINEIDESHEHUIGONGYOUHEQIYEZIZHI,SHIDELAOGONGNENGGOUCANYUGUANLIHESHENGYUDEFENPEI。

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注释:

  ① 这里的结构主义特指产生于拉美的结构主义理论,而非钱纳里(Hollis B.Chenery)等发展经济学家提出的结构变迁理论。

  ②[阿根廷]劳尔·普雷维什著,苏振兴、袁兴昌译:《外围资本主义:危机与改造》,北京:商务印书馆,1990年,第237—239页。

  ③ 参见颜鹏飞著:《激进政治经济学派》,武汉:武汉出版社,1994年,第168-226页;[英]彼得·华莱士·普雷斯顿著,李小云等译:《发展理论导论》,北京:社会科学文献出版社,2011年,第203-224页;Bjorn Hettne,“The Development of Development Theory”,in Acta Sociologica,Vol.26,No.3/4,1983,pp.249-253.

  ④[阿根廷]劳尔·普雷维什著,苏振兴、袁兴昌译:《外围资本主义:危机与改造》,北京:商务印书馆,1990年。

  ⑤马克思、恩格斯:《共产党宣言》,载《马克思恩格斯选集》(第一卷),北京:人民出版社,1972年,第71页。

  ⑥马克思:《资本论》(第一卷),北京:人民出版社,2004年第二版,第819页。

  ⑦列宁:《帝国主义是资本主义的最高阶段》,北京:人民出版社,2014年。

  ⑧Paul Baran,“On the Political Economy of Backwardness”,in The Manchester School of Economy andSocial Studies,Vol.XX,No.1,January 1952,pp.66-84.

  ⑨参见[英]莱斯利·贝瑟尔主编:《剑桥拉丁美洲史》(第六卷上),北京:当代世界出版社,2000年,第451页。

  ⑩[巴西]特奥托尼奥·多斯桑托斯著,杨衍永等译:《帝国主义与依附》,北京:社会科学文献出版社,1992年。

  (11)马克思、恩格斯:《共产党宣言》,载《马克思恩格斯选集》(第一卷),北京:人民出版社,1972年,第71页。

  (12)Paul Baran,“On the Political Economy of Backwardness”,in The Manchester School of Economy and Social Studies,Vol.XX,No.1,January 1952,p.69.

  (14)[阿根廷]劳尔·普雷维什著,苏振兴、袁兴昌译:《外围资本主义:危机与改造》,北京:商务印书馆,1990年,第68-72页。

  (15)Raúl Prebisch,“Cinco Etapas de mi Pensamiento sobre el Desarrollo”,en El Trimestre Económico,Vol.50,No.2,abril-junio de 1983,p.1087.

  (16)Osvaldo Sunkel,“La Dependencia y la Heterogeneidad Estructural”,en El Trimestre Económico,Vol.45,No.1,enero-marzo de 1978,p.5.

  (16)马克思、恩格斯:《共产党宣言》,载《马克思恩格斯选集》(第一卷),北京:人民出版社,1972年,第70页。

  (17)马克思:《不列颠在印度统治的未来结果》,载《马克思恩格斯选集》(第二卷),北京:人民出版社,1972年,第251页。

  (18)Raúl Prebisch,“El Desarrollo Económico de la América Latina y Algunos de sus Principales Problemas”,en Desarrollo Económico,Vol.26,No.103,Oct.-Dec.1986,pp.479-502.

  (19)[阿根廷]劳尔·普雷维什著,苏振兴、袁兴昌译:《外围资本主义:危机与改造》,北京:商务印书馆,1990年,第9页,第23页。

  (20)[巴西]特奥托尼奥·多斯桑托斯著,杨衍永等译:《帝国主义与依附》,北京:社会科学文献出版社,1992年,第328-342页。

  (21)[巴西]费尔南多·恩里克·卡多佐、恩佐·法勒托著,单楚译:《拉美的依附性及发展》,北京:世界知识出版社,2002年,第169页。

  (22)马克思:《资本论》(第一卷),北京:人民出版社,2004年第二版,第717-738页。

  (23)列宁:《帝国主义是资本主义的最高阶段》,北京:人民出版社,2014年,第7页。

  (24)参见[阿根廷]劳尔·普雷维什著,苏振兴、袁兴昌译:《外围资本主义:危机与改造》,北京:商务印书馆,1990年。

  (25)[巴西]特奥托尼奥·多斯桑托斯著,杨衍永等译:《帝国主义与依附》,北京:社会科学文献出版社,1992年,第327页。

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